Modal verbs

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Modal verbs

  1. 1. Modal Verbs or Modal Auxiliary Verbs Miss Fernanda Maturana N.
  2. 2. Modal Verbs <ul><li>We have lots of “modal verbs”, such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Can </li></ul><ul><li>Could </li></ul><ul><li>May </li></ul><ul><li>Might </li></ul><ul><li>Will </li></ul><ul><li>Would </li></ul><ul><li>Shall </li></ul><ul><li>Should </li></ul><ul><li>Ought to </li></ul><ul><li>Must </li></ul><ul><li>Need </li></ul><ul><li>Dare </li></ul>
  3. 3. USE of Modal Verbs <ul><li>We use modal verbs to talk about possibility, willingness, ability, obligation, certainty and permission. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>It might rain. (possibility) </li></ul><ul><li>Will you help me?(willingness) </li></ul><ul><li>Can she swim? (ability) </li></ul><ul><li>You must be home by 11 o’clock. (obligation) </li></ul><ul><li>You haven’t eaten all day. You must be hungry. (centainty) </li></ul><ul><li>May I borrow your car? (permission) </li></ul>
  4. 4. FORM of Modal Verbs <ul><li>We form the affirmative by putting the modal verb between the subject and the full verb. </li></ul><ul><li>“ We should go” </li></ul><ul><li>Subject (or pronoun) + Modal verb + Verb </li></ul><ul><li>Modal verbs take the same form in all pronouns. The verb doesn’t change after modal verb. </li></ul><ul><li>“ We should goes” </li></ul><ul><li>“ We should going” </li></ul><ul><li>“ We should went” </li></ul><ul><li>“ We should to go” </li></ul>
  5. 5. FORM of Modal Verbs <ul><li>NEGATIVE FORM: We form the negative by putting “ not ” after the modal verb. </li></ul><ul><li>“ She can’t swim” </li></ul><ul><li>“ It might not rain” </li></ul><ul><li>INTERROGATIVE FORM: We form questions by inverting the subject and the modal verb. </li></ul><ul><li>She can swim. Can she swim? </li></ul><ul><li>We should go. Should we go? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ability It means “Tengo o tuve la habilidad de…” “ I was / am able to play the guitar” It means “Pude” “ I could play the guitar” It means “Puedo” “ I can play the guitar ” Expresses general ability in the past and in the present. Expresses general ability in the past. Expresses general ability in the present. BE ABLE TO COULD CAN
  7. 7. Permission It gives permission General permission to do something in the past It gives permission Less direct and formal More formal than can or could Is less direct and polite than can Is the most common. MIGHT MAY COULD CAN
  8. 8. Obligation and Necessity Used in the past ( Had to ) QUESTIONS: Use of do/does in present simple and did in the past. “ I have to be home by 10” It is used in the present and in the future “ You must be home by 10 o’clock” We use have to when the autthority comes from outside the speaker. We use must when the authority comes from the speaker. HAVE TO MUST
  9. 9. Obligation and Necessity I needn’t get up today. I don’t need to get up. I’m on holiday. I don’t have to get up today. You musn’t smoke in a hospital It is not necessary to do something It is not necessary to do something Is not necessary to do something Obligation not to do something NEEDN’T DON’T NEED TO DON’T HAVE TO MUSTN’T
  10. 10. Obligation and Advice We use it when we want to know someone’s opinion, or when we want advice or instructions. “ Shall I…?” <ul><li>Expresses a strong recommendation in a particular situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Present or future, not past. </li></ul><ul><li>Obligation and duty (laws or rules) </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for and give advice </li></ul><ul><li>Say what is right or wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Obligation and duty </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for and give advice </li></ul><ul><li>Say what is right or wrong </li></ul>SHALL HAD BETTER OUGHT TO SHOULD
  11. 11. Possibility “ Where is Simon?” “He could be in the living room” “ We might go to the beach” “ There is someone at the door, it may be Sarah” <ul><li>Used in present or future </li></ul><ul><li>+Could </li></ul><ul><li>It doesn’t express posibility in negative </li></ul><ul><li>Used in present or future </li></ul><ul><li>++Might </li></ul><ul><li>Used in present or future </li></ul><ul><li>+++May </li></ul>COULD MIGHT MAY
  12. 12. Probability “ He ought to pass his driving test easily.” “ Sally should be at work by now.” It is used to say that something is probable at the moment of speaking, or in the future. It is used to say that something is probable at the moment of speaking, or in the future. OUGHT TO SHOULD
  13. 13. Request <ul><li>Would like: </li></ul><ul><li>Polite way of saying what we want. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I would like a glass of water, please” </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to ask for permission </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to ask for permission and to ask someone to do something for us, but is more polite. </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to ask for permission and to ask someone to do something for us. </li></ul><ul><li>We use it to ask someone to do something for us, but is more polite. </li></ul><ul><li>We use it to ask someone to do something for us. </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to ask for something </li></ul><ul><li>The most formal </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to ask for something </li></ul><ul><li>Less Direct and more polite </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to ask for something </li></ul>WOULD WILL MAY COULD CAN
  14. 14. Offers Would you like to go to a party on Saturday? I could lend you money if you want. I can send this letter for you. Shall I help you? I will help you with your suitcase. It is used with like, prefer and rather , to make polite offers and invitations. <ul><li>It is used to offer to do something for someone. </li></ul><ul><li>Is more polite and less direct. </li></ul>It is used to offer to do something for someone. Shall I? is used to offer to do something for someone. It is used to say that we are willing to do something or to offer to do something. Would Could Can Shall Will

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