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Communication for all


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For my students who study communication and communication skills at different levels

For my students who study communication and communication skills at different levels

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

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  • 1. What is communication?
  • 2. Communication in its simplest form is conveying of information from one person to another.
  • 3. Communication is the transfer of information from one person to another. It is, according to George Terry, “an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons.”
  • 4. • Communication is a process of transmitting and receiving verbal and nonverbal messages. • Communication is a two way process of exchanging ideas or information.
  • 5. Communication is the sum of all things, one person does when he wants to create understanding in the mind of the other. It is a bridge of meaning. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding. Allen Louis
  • 6. Communication is transfer of information. It takes place through a process.
  • 7. The simplest model of communication process Sender--------Message------Receiver
  • 8. Communication is a process that is dynamic, continuous and irreversible but at the same time, it is reciprocal in nature. It is an ongoing process
  • 9. Business communication is a process of transfer of information and understanding between different parts and people of a business organization. It consists of various modes and media involved in communication interchanges
  • 10. Immediate or Primary (to cover or share information) Ultimate or Secondary (to convince or to persuade people)
  • 11. Formal 1. Intra –organizational communication 2. Inter- organizational Informal 3. Personal communication
  • 12. 1. Purpose (why) 2. Content (what) 3. Skill (how)
  • 13. Process of Communication transmission encoding decoding Sender Receiver decoding encoding transmission
  • 14. Process of Communication Noise Channel/transmission Encoding Sender decoding receiver Channel/transmission
  • 15. Components of Communication • • • • • • Context Sender – encoder Message Medium Receiver – decoder Feedback
  • 16. Nature of Communication • • • • • It is a process It is inevitable Meaning based It could be intentional or unintentional It is systematic
  • 17. Nature of Communication • A two-way traffic • A social process • Dynamic process • Continuous process • Needs proper understanding • Dispels misunderstanding
  • 18. Objective or Purpose of Communication • To inform • • • • • • • To persuade To educate To train To motivate To integrate To relate To entertain
  • 19. Barriers to Communication
  • 20. Barriers to Communication • Barriers on the part of the sender • Barriers on the part of the receiver • Technical barriers/ barriers on the part of the organization
  • 21. Barriers to Communication “I want you to write a manual to interpret the brochure that we created to clarify the pamphlet that we got printed to inform our customers about our new products.”
  • 22. Semantic Barriers • Words having similar pronunciation but multiple meaning • Badly expressed message • Wrong interpretation • Technical language
  • 23. Organizational Barriers • • • • • • Organization culture and climate Rules and regulation Status relationship Complexity in organization structure Inadequate facilities and opportunities Lack of cordiality and cooperation
  • 24. Interpersonal Barriers Superior – subordinate relationship • No time for the subordinates • No respect for the subordinates • Lack of trust • Lack of consideration for their needs • Wish to capture authority • Fear of losing power • Information overload
  • 25. Interpersonal Barriers • • • • • Emanating from subordinates Lack of proper channel – pressure of position, power and authority No interest in communication Lack of cooperation Poor relationship between superiorsubordinates fear
  • 26. Individual Barriers (psycho-sociological) • • • • • • • Perception and individuality Status awareness Poor listening Poor retention Lack of attention Indifference Health factor filtering
  • 27. Cross Cultural Barriers • • • • • • • National character Language Values and ethics Social relationship Concept of time Concept of space Non verbal communication
  • 28. Physical barriers (channel and media barriers) Noise Technological Barriers
  • 29. Forms of communication • Verbal communication • Non-verbal communication
  • 30. Verbal communication This form of communication uses words spoken or written – to communicate.
  • 31. Verbal Communication Oral Written
  • 32. Oral Communication • • • • • • • • Face to face discussion Telephone / cellular phone Presentation Intercom Radio/T.V. Tape-recorder Speech Interview Grapevine
  • 33. Components of Oral Communication • • • • Presentation Audience awareness Critical listening Body language
  • 34. Presentation
  • 35. Oral presentation
  • 36. Written Communication • • • • • • • • Notice Telegram Memorandum Telex Fax Email Letter Newspaper/journal/magazine
  • 37. Components of Written Communication • • • • Academic writing Revision & editing Critical reading Presentation of data
  • 38. We are always communicating, consciously or unconsciously. It is one of the most important aspect of human life. We do need to understand the whole gamut of it, to live a meaningful and effective life at all levels.
  • 39. •There is a direct co-relation between employee Communication Skills & Profitability. Communication skills rate second only to job knowledge in your work life & success. oYour level of communication mastery in the external world will determine your growth & well being. Quality of your life is quality of your communication
  • 40. Learn how to respect and appreciate others, you need not agree with the contents, but you can respect/agree with someone’s feelings about something. Ask: Intelligently and precisely, specifically (What why when), Ask the right person, Create value for the person you are asking, Ask with focused congruent belief, Ask until you get what you want. Ensure with feedback that the message has been Clearly and Correctly understood.
  • 41. According to researches, Verbal (words) element accounts for 7%, Vocal(tone) 38% and Visual (body language) accounts for 55% in any communication. However there is another auric (your internal state of being, feelings etc.) element which does affect the communication. We all have experienced what it means to be in the company of happy positive person. Researches have yet to establish to proportions for it.
  • 42. Nonverbal communication means all communication that involves neither written nor spoken words but occurs without the use of words
  • 43. Non-verbal communication The communication that does not use words spoken or written – is called non-verbal communication.
  • 44. Nonverbal Communication • Body Language • Sign Language • Paralanguage
  • 45. Components of Nonverbal Communication • Audience awareness • Personal presentation • Body language
  • 46. Body Language • • • • • • • Facial Expressions Eye Contact Posture Gestures Body Shape Smell and Touch Silence
  • 47. Body Language Posture Eye contact Gesture Body shape Circumstantial language
  • 48. Body Language Posture Circumstantial language Body shape Facial expression
  • 49. Body Language Facial expression
  • 50. Sign ? Symbol ? Facial expression ?
  • 51. Body Language Facial expression
  • 52. Body Language Symbol
  • 53. Nonverbal communication Cultural factor
  • 54. Nonverbal communication Time
  • 55. Sign Language • Symbols Visual symbols Audio symbols
  • 56. Nonverbal communication Visual communication
  • 57. circumstantial language
  • 58. Nonverbal communication circumstantial language
  • 59. circumstantial language
  • 60. Paralanguage • • • • • • Pitch Variation Volume Speed and Pause Stress on words Non-fluencies Circumstantial language
  • 61. What is effective communication? Communication is considered effective when it achieves the desired reaction or response from the receiver.
  • 62. Barriers of Communication Noise : 1 Physical 2 Physiological 3 Psychological
  • 63. Barriers on the part of the sender • • • • • Faulty planning Vague Presumptions Semantics Poorly expressed contents Emphasizing the wrong part of the message
  • 64. Barriers on the part of the sender • Inconsistent verbal and nonverbal communication • Emotional factor • Status factor • Filtering
  • 65. Barriers on the Part of the Receiver • • • • • • Distraction Poor listening and instant reaction Emotional constraints Closed minds Filtering Distrust
  • 66. Organizational and Other Barriers • Noise • Insufficient time period • Loss during transmission and poor retention • Barriers due to organization structure • Cultural barriers
  • 67. Remedies to overcome the barriers • Follow up and feedback • Check the functioning of the channels of communication • Timing • Attention to language • Removal of personal barriers • Cultural consciousness
  • 68. What Does Communication Accomplish?
  • 69. C un mm Co t io n ic a
  • 70. Management Happens Through Communication
  • 71. Managers Have Three Basic Jobs • To collect and convey information • To make decisions • To promote interpersonal unity
  • 72. Mediums for communication • • • • • Oral communication Written communication Visual communication Audio-visual communication Computer based communication
  • 73. Choice of Medium • The type of audience to be reached • The speed with which the message should be conveyed • Need for confidentiality • Need for accuracy • Need for reliability • Availability of a particular medium • Intensity and complexity of the message
  • 74. What Makes a Message Effective? Good business and administrative writing is• Clear • Coherent • Complete • Correct • Concise • Builds Goodwill
  • 75. How to achieve effectiveness • Command over language • Adequate knowledge of human psychology • Adequate knowledge of subject • Sincerity and accuracy of facts/data • Imagination and perception • Cheerfulness 
  • 76. How to Analyze Business Communication Situation? P A I B O C Purpose Audience Information Benefits Objections Context and circumstances
  • 77. Making One’s writing More Effective Business communications need both to solve the organizational problem and meet the psychological needs of the people involved.  planning  writing  revising
  • 78. Content and Clarity  Does your document meet the needs of the organization and of the reader – and make you look good?  Have you given the readers all the information they need to understand and act on your message?  Is all the information accurate?  Is each statement clear?  Does it contain adequate supporting details?
  • 79. Organization and Layout  Is the choice of the channel proper?  Are transitions between the ideas smooth?  Is the document properly designed?  Are the first and the last paragraphs effective?
  • 80. Style and Tone Is the message easy to read? Is the message friendly and free from biased language? Does the message build goodwill?
  • 81. Using Right Type of Communication • If your audience is:  Introvert type  Extrovert type • Use this strategy  Write a memo  Try out your ideas orally  Intuitive type  Present the big picture first  Thinking type  Sensitive type  Use logic not emotion  Express your concern about the people-needs of the organization
  • 82. Communication Systems
  • 83. Chief Executive Managing Director Company Secretary Financial Director Sales Director
  • 84. Communication Systems • • • • • Downward Communication Upward Communication Horizontal Communication Diagonal Communication Grapevine
  • 85. Company Secretary Managing Director Financial Director Horizontal Communication Upward Communication Downward Communication Chief Executive Sales Director
  • 86. Downward Communication ooo Where higher levels communicate with staff below them. memos notices in-house newsletter company handbook procedure manuals
  • 87. Downward Communication a. motivation b. job instructions related to specific tasks c. job rationales explaining the assign task in relation to other organizational tasks. d. procedures and practices of the organization e. feedback on individual performances
  • 88. Upward Communication Communications are directed upwards to managers, supervisors or directors by using: memos reports meetings informal discussions
  • 89. Horizontal Communication This occurs between people of the same status – sales staff, departmental heads, directors, supervisors by using: memos reports committee meetings seminars / conferences
  • 90. Diagonal Communication Tasks that involve more than one departments and without any obvious line of authority. It largely relies on cooperation, goodwill and mutual respect between concerned individual. It may use memos and informal discussions
  • 91. Grapevine • This is an unofficial system of communication. • When correct lines of communications are not used, the grapevines results.
  • 92. What is Effective Communication?
  • 93. Written Communication Skills
  • 94. Checklist for Effective Writing Content and clarity Organization and Layout Style and Tone
  • 95. Purposes of writing business letters • To Inform • To Persuade • To Collaborate
  • 96. To Inform • The first purpose of written communication is to inform the receiver of the message. • For instance: • To present last month’s sales figures the Vice president of the Marketing.
  • 97. To Persuade • The second purpose of the written communication is to convince the readers of our subject. • For instance: • To convince the Vice President of the Marketing to hire more sales representatives.
  • 98. To Collaborate • The final purpose of written communication is to collaborate. • For instance: • To help Personnel Department in developing a training programme to new employees of the Sales Department.
  • 99. Five Stages of Writing • • • • • Thinking and Planning The Reader Capturing Ideas Shape and Structure Editing, Revising and Proof Reading.
  • 100. Business Letters • Business letters are basic means of communication between two individuals or companies. • A successful letter should be able to get the response that we expect from the reader.
  • 101. Business Letters • Business letters are written to inform readers about specific information and also to persuade others to take action or to propose your ideas. • The key to write a business letter is to get to the point as quickly as possible and to present our information clearly.
  • 102. Steps in Formulation of Letters 1. Consider the Reader: • One of the main steps in formulation of the letter is to consider the reader. The main idea of writing a message is to make the reader to understand what we want to convey.
  • 103. Steps in Formulation of Letters 2. Be Personal: • The message should be given a personal touch. 3. Be Concise and To the Point: • The language of the letter should be concise and straight.
  • 104. Steps in Formulation of Letters 4. Be Friendly and Build the Relationship: • Communication is all about building relationships. The message should have the touch of friendliness so that a better business relationship can be built in the future.
  • 105. Steps in Formulation of Letters 5. Correctness: • After writing down the message, we should do an editing on the written matter. Check for spelling mistakes, the usage of grammar and facts that have been use in the letter.