Demise of Japanese
 Trade Unionism
     Neige, Nanako, Ryeoyoung
          1
From the Questions...


1. Why they have "moderate" Labor Unions?

  Ritualized strike/ submissive collective
  bargaining...
Overview

Features of Japanese Trade Unionism

Origin of Japanese Trade Unionism

Current Changing Environment

Discussion...
Types of Trade Union
      in Japan

Any kind of Trade Union is possible; no
regulation

More than 95% are Enterprise Unio...
Unionization Rate by Size
     of Private Enterprises




Source: Ministry of Public Management, Home Affairs,
Posts and T...
Enterprise Unions

Why are there a lot of enterprise
unions in Japan?
   Lifetime employment system

   Difficulty standar...
Trade Union Structure
Enterprise
Union

Industrial
Organization

National
Organization




               7
Trade Union Structure
Enterprise
Union

Industrial
Organization

National
Organization




               7
Trade Union Structure
Enterprise
Union

Industrial
Organization

National
Organization


               Only regular membe...
Japanese Features
   (shuntou, collective bargaining)

Wage hikes(              ) improvement
of working condition (work h...
Japanese Features
       (shuntou, collective bargaining)

    Wage hikes(              ) improvement
    of working condi...
Japanese Style Strike

Strike is done for the period limited for a
day or several hours at the early stage of
the negociat...
Few strikes in Japan
Why is it rarely seen in Japan?
 1. Recession has continued
 2. Hard to be understood from others;
 s...
Birth of Unionism and
   Prosperity Times

End of 19C : begin of unionism

WW2 : no activity, forced to stop by gov

Post-...
Origin of shuntou
  "Spring Struggle for a Better Life" (from 1955)

  High pressures : strikes, banners,
  sloganeering →...
Recession, Weakening
    of Trade Unions
 Starting from 1975, low growth, unions
 become more conciliatory

 Negociations ...
Grouping Movement
Mid-1980s : 4 main labor federations : Sohyo,
Domei, Churitsu Roren, Shinsanbetsu

Same revendications →...
Decline Goes On


                                          Huge Power loss coincide
                                     ...
Premise of Shuntou


Rise in price / Economic growth

Job stability / Regular employment

Seniority-based, equal pay ; sol...
Obstacle to Shuntou

Deflation / Economic recession

Labor flexibility / Non-regular employment

Perform-based pay introduce...
Increases in non-regular
 and part-time workers




   OECD Economic Survey of Japan 2006
                   18
Extended Membership

Recruit non-regular workers

Include non-regular worker issue in
shuntou

Set up occupation/region ba...
Trade Union for
         Whom?
Criticism against Rengo's policy


        for reguar          Equal pay for non-
         ...
Summary
Cooperative; do negotiation, but not action

Historical facts, (not cultural), has been
changing

Shrinking role; ...
Discussion
          "Japanese labor union is not the
         union of workers, but the union of
                    empl...
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Neige Nanako Ryeoyoung

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Neige Nanako Ryeoyoung

  1. 1. Demise of Japanese Trade Unionism Neige, Nanako, Ryeoyoung 1
  2. 2. From the Questions... 1. Why they have "moderate" Labor Unions? Ritualized strike/ submissive collective bargaining 2. Is it still effective? 2
  3. 3. Overview Features of Japanese Trade Unionism Origin of Japanese Trade Unionism Current Changing Environment Discussion 3
  4. 4. Types of Trade Union in Japan Any kind of Trade Union is possible; no regulation More than 95% are Enterprise Unions Single union, universal membership 4
  5. 5. Unionization Rate by Size of Private Enterprises Source: Ministry of Public Management, Home Affairs, Posts and Telecommunications, Labour Force Survey 5
  6. 6. Enterprise Unions Why are there a lot of enterprise unions in Japan? Lifetime employment system Difficulty standardizing working condition; difference between big enterprise and small/medium-sized enterprise 6
  7. 7. Trade Union Structure Enterprise Union Industrial Organization National Organization 7
  8. 8. Trade Union Structure Enterprise Union Industrial Organization National Organization 7
  9. 9. Trade Union Structure Enterprise Union Industrial Organization National Organization Only regular members can chiefly do the labor disturbance 7
  10. 10. Japanese Features (shuntou, collective bargaining) Wage hikes( ) improvement of working condition (work hrs cut) Around the spring every year 8
  11. 11. Japanese Features (shuntou, collective bargaining) Wage hikes( ) improvement of working condition (work hrs cut) Around the spring every year Japan is not going on strike though does the labor disturbance... WHY? 8
  12. 12. Japanese Style Strike Strike is done for the period limited for a day or several hours at the early stage of the negociation. Strike is performed management and meeting beforehand, and doesn't aim at an important interruption of production. 9
  13. 13. Few strikes in Japan Why is it rarely seen in Japan? 1. Recession has continued 2. Hard to be understood from others; seen as "selfish" What do you think??? 10
  14. 14. Birth of Unionism and Prosperity Times End of 19C : begin of unionism WW2 : no activity, forced to stop by gov Post-war : move for restructuration, but division→ 74,500 trade unions in 1980s Union membership in 1970 : 35.4 % 11
  15. 15. Origin of shuntou "Spring Struggle for a Better Life" (from 1955) High pressures : strikes, banners, sloganeering →  show of force During economic growth (1960s - mid-1970s), rapid wage level rising, huge bonuses twice / year...  ​→ strong unions, good defense of the workers' rights 12
  16. 16. Recession, Weakening of Trade Unions Starting from 1975, low growth, unions become more conciliatory Negociations not at the advantage of the employees Ex : in 1989, 5.1 % pay hike, while GNP growth = 5 % → almost noth Labor union membership in 1987 : 27.6 % 13
  17. 17. Grouping Movement Mid-1980s : 4 main labor federations : Sohyo, Domei, Churitsu Roren, Shinsanbetsu Same revendications → fusion to gain strenght 1987 : Domei + Churitsu Roren =  Rengo (National Federation of Private Sector Unions) 1990 : Sohyo + Rengo → one big union, with 6.8 million members nowadays 14
  18. 18. Decline Goes On Huge Power loss coincide with demise of Social Democratic Party and Communist Party 15 Ministry of Health, Labor and Wealth, Basic survey on labor unions 2007
  19. 19. Premise of Shuntou Rise in price / Economic growth Job stability / Regular employment Seniority-based, equal pay ; solidarity under common goal 16
  20. 20. Obstacle to Shuntou Deflation / Economic recession Labor flexibility / Non-regular employment Perform-based pay introduced Gap between companies Competition within workers 17
  21. 21. Increases in non-regular and part-time workers OECD Economic Survey of Japan 2006 18
  22. 22. Extended Membership Recruit non-regular workers Include non-regular worker issue in shuntou Set up occupation/region based union; include workers in other related firms (subcontractors) 19
  23. 23. Trade Union for Whom? Criticism against Rengo's policy for reguar Equal pay for non- regular workers workers Regularize non-regular Job security workers 20
  24. 24. Summary Cooperative; do negotiation, but not action Historical facts, (not cultural), has been changing Shrinking role; external Influence from recession /changing employment structure /same strategy 21
  25. 25. Discussion "Japanese labor union is not the union of workers, but the union of employers." - Wakabayashi Without collective action, who will represent regular/ non-regular workers? 22

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