Golden Rice – Potential And Outlook
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Golden Rice – Potential And Outlook

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2-3 million die every year because of Vitamin A deficiency, 500.000 people get blind, most of them children. With Golden Rice, a lot of these people could be saved. Learn how and why.

2-3 million die every year because of Vitamin A deficiency, 500.000 people get blind, most of them children. With Golden Rice, a lot of these people could be saved. Learn how and why.

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  • Beyer and Potricus 1992
  • Deficiency effects:Night blindness, blindnessDiminishes ability to fight infectionsincrease children's risk of developing respiratory and diarrheal infectionsdecrease growth ratemutations/reproductional effects
  • Es zeigte sich nach weiteren Untersuchungen, dass eine im Reisendosperm aktive β-Lycopinzyklase vorhanden ist, die das Lycopin in ausreichender Geschwindigkeit zu β-Carotin umsetzt.
  • NOS Terminator A termination codon (sequence of DNA) that is frequently utilized in genetic engineering of plants to \"terminate\" expression of the inserted gene (i.e., to halt synthesis of desired protein in the plant, after the desired protein synthesis has occurred). The NOS acronym stands for nopaline synthase.The NOS terminator was originally extracted from the bacteria species Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Gt1p-promotor to avoid observed lutein underexpressionGlutelins are soluble in dilute acids or bases, detergents, chaotropic or reducing agents. They are generally prolamin-like proteins in certain grass seeds. glutenin is the most common glutelin as it is found in wheat and is responsible from some of the refined baking properties in bread wheat. The glutelins of barley and rye[1] have also been identified.Ubi 1p maize ubiquitin-promotorcrtI, carotene-desaturase from Erwinia uredovora;The bacterial crt1 gene was an important inclusion to complete the pathway, since it can catalyze multiple steps in the synthesis of carotenoids, while these steps require more than one enzyme in plantstp, transit peptide of the pea ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunitThe exogenous lyc gene has a transit peptide sequence attached so that it is targeted to the plastid, where geranylgeranyl diphosphate formation occursThe Positech-systemCertain simple sugars such as mannose cannot generally be utilised as an energy source by many plants like maize, potato or sugar beet, when grown in tissue culture. However, transformed plant cells containing the gene that encodes for the enzyme phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) are able to convert mannose-6-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate and use it as an energy source. When grown on a medium containing mannose as a sole sugar source, only transformed cells that produce - or express - the PMI enzyme will grow.When the gene that encodes for the PMI enzyme, called ‘manA’, is used as a selectable marker, the end product is a common sugar.This system, called ‘Positech’, is currently being used in research on maize, wheat, barley, sugar beet and vegetables. Positech offers an effective alternative to antibiotic resistance or herbicide tolerance marker genes in many crops. Safety of the Positech markerThe manA gene is naturally present and expressed in mammals. Therefore, the metabolites produced by the Positech system are already widely present. There have been no observed agronomic differences, such as yield, compared with equivalent conventional maize varieties. As part of the ongoing safety assessment of the Positech system, the following results were found: No measurable allergenic potential was found. Glycoprotein profiles remained the same in transformed plants. Transgenic maize using Positech was indistinguishable from conventional maize when analysed for moisture, ash, fibre, fat, protein, beta-carotene, xanthophylls and vitamin C. No adverse effects of the PMI enzyme were found during an acute oral mouse toxicity study.
  • Oxidative stress in apoptotic pathways in heart disease -> Carotinoids as antioxidants2 SNPs in Methylene Tetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene – Risk for venous thromboembolic disease, ischemic arterial disease, neural tube defects  folic acid supplementsAntioxidant nutrients are believed to play a role in the prevention and treatment of a variety of chronic diseases, ranging from asthma to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. The proposed mechanism by which antioxidants protect cells from oxidative stress is by scavenging free radicals and halting lipid peroxidation chain reactions, which can cause DNA damage.[2]

Golden Rice – Potential And Outlook Golden Rice – Potential And Outlook Presentation Transcript

  •  792 million people are malnourished (2000)  10 million children die of malnutrition every year  2-3 million die because of VAD, 500.000 get blind  400 million poor consume mainly rice
  • Vi t am n A i m t ance i por  Vision  Epithelial growth and repair  Bone growth  Reproduction and embryonic development  Maintenance of the surface linings of the eyes  Epithelial integrity of respiratory, urinary and intestinal tracts  Regulation of adult genes  Immune response
  • Vi t am n A i pr oduct i on Just middle part missing in endosperm: Phytoene Synthase, Phytoene Desaturase, Zeta-Carotene Desaturase
  • The const r uc t A lot of work has been done since the intitial idea...
  • The “best “ const r uct : GR II  Endosperm-specific promotor Glutelin-promotor Gt1p  transit peptide tp to target plastid  Nos-Terminator , terminating synthesis (nopaline synthase)  carotene-desaturase from Erwinia uredovora crtI, catalyzing mutiple steps in carotenoid synthesis  Zea mays phytoene synthase  Maize ubiquitin-promotor ubi1p  phosphomannose-isomerase marker-System „Positech“, avoiding antibiotic-marker  RB and LB: RB, T-DNA right/left border sequence
  • The new G den R ce ol i  Golden Rice up to 37 µg/g carotenoid of which 31 µg/g is β-carotene (first generation Golden Rice 1.6 µg/g )  $3.00 - 19.40 daly (costs to save one life) – from $200 cost-effective (World bank)  India: 5,000-40,000 children could be saved per year – every 14minutes one life
  • C i t i ci sm r  Golden Rice could contaminate wild rice forever  better answers to the problem of VAD  Encourages diet based on one food  Designed to help introducing GMOs  Unknown side-effects  Bioavailability, storage effects
  • M cr onut r i ent s and i B oavai l abl i t y i  Micronutrients can enhance soil quality  Various factors determine availablity  A lot of breeding- potential
  • St at us and O l ook ut  Introduction to the Philippines by 2012, then Bangladesh  Yield: about 5t - low? Storage – depends on traits Conversion factor – first experiments successfull  GR with additional nutritional traits: vitamin E, iron and zinc, high-quality protein or essential amino acids
  • Per sonal i zed m ci ne edi  Trend of the future: personalized diets for problematic SNPs  Nutrigenomics: Interaction of dietary components and resulting proteonomic and metabolomic changes  Nutrigenetics: Understanding Gene-based differences in response to dietary components
  • What shoul d be done  Spread biofortified food to Africa  Adopt regulatory process  Shift public opinion  Focus research and agriculture lesser on profits  Establish not only bio, but also quality
  • Sour ces  All Slides: Salim Al-Babili and Peter Beyer, „Golden Rice – five years on the road – five years to go?“, Review: Trends in Plant Science, Vol. 10 No. 12 December 2005 Roukayatou Zimmermann, Matin Qaim: „Potential health benefits of Golden Rice – a Philippine case study“ – Food policy 29 (2004) Ross M. Welch, Robin D. Graham: „Breeding for micronutrients in staple food crops from a human nutrition perspective“, Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 55, No. 396 Peter Bayer et al.: „Golden Rice: Indroducing the β-Carotene Biosynthesis Pathway into Rice Endosperm by Genetic Engineering to Defeat Vitamin A Defiency“, Symposium The Journal of Nutrition, 2002 American Society for Nutritional Science The Golden Rice project – www.goldenrice.org  Slide 3: http://www.cehjournal.org/extra/40_15_01.html , Photos: Simon Franken, Allen Foster, Donald McLaren & Gordon Johnson Alfred Sommer (ophthalmologist) http://www.jhsph.edu/publichealthnews/press_releases/sommer_vitA.html  Slide 7: DER SPIEGEL 48/2008 http://www.spiegel.de/media/0,4906,19439,00.pdf „Kampagne für gentechnisch veränderten Reis am Scheideweg“ Christoph Then, www.scouting-biotechnology.net, Januar 2009, im Auftrag von foodwatch e. V. http://www.foodwatch.de/e10/e1026/e19431/e23453/GoldenRice_deutsch_final_ger.pdf „All that glitters is not Gold: The false hope of Golden Rice“, Greenpeace, May 2005, http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/international/press/reports/ all-that-glitters-is-not-gold.pdf  Slide 8: www.greenpeace.org  Slide 9: http://www.goldenrice.org/Content3-Why/why3_FAQ.html  Slide 11: Rahul Shetty MD, http://open.medicdrive.org/blog/2007/09/26/surfing-the-waves-of-medicine-two-point-oh/  Slide 12: Google Earth, Terrametrics, DigitalGlobe Undata, www.thematicmapping.org