Biotechnology 6
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  • 1. Biotechnology
  • 2. What Is Biotechnology?  Using scientific methods with organisms to produce new products or new forms of organisms  Any technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific uses
  • 3. What Is Biotechnology?  GMO- genetically modified organisms.  GEO- genetically enhanced organisms.  With both, the natural genetic material of the organism has been altered.  Roots in bread making, wine brewing, cheese and yogurt fermentation, and classical plant and animal breeding
  • 4. What Is Biotechnology?  Manipulation of genes is called genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology  Genetic engineering involves taking one or more genes from a location in one organism and either  Transferring them to another organism  Putting them back into the original organism in different combinations
  • 5. What is the career outlook in biotechnology?  Biotech in 1998  1,300 companies in the US  2/3 have less than 135 employees  140,000 jobs  Jobs will continue to increase exponentially  Jobs are available to high school graduates through PhD’s
  • 6. What Subjects Are Involved With Biotechnology?  Multidisciplinary- involving a number of disciplines that are coordinated for a desired outcome  Science  Life sciences  Physical sciences  Social sciences
  • 7. What Subjects Are Involved With Biotechnology?  Mathematics  Applied sciences  Computer applications  Engineering  Agriculture
  • 8. What Are the Stages of Biotechnology Development  Ancient biotechnology- early history as related to food and shelter; Includes domestication  Classical biotechnology- built on ancient biotechnology; Fermentation promoted food production, and medicine  Modern biotechnology- manipulates genetic information in organism; Genetic engineering
  • 9. What Are the Areas of Biotechnology?  Organismic biotechnology- uses intact organisms; Does not alter genetic material  Molecular biotechnology- alters genetic makeup to achieve specific goals  Transgenic organism- an organism with artificially altered genetic material
  • 10. What Are the Benefits of Biotechnology?  Medicine  Human  Veterinary  Biopharming  Environment  Agriculture  Food products  Industry and manufacturing
  • 11. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?  Anton van Leeuwenhoek  Discovered cells  Bacteria  Protists  Red blood
  • 12. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?  Gregor Johan Mendel  Discovered genetics
  • 13. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?  Walter Sutton  Discovered Chromosomes
  • 14. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?  Thomas Hunt Morgan  Discovered how genes are transmitted through chromosomes
  • 15. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?  Ernst Ruska  Invented the electron microscope
  • 16. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?  Sir Alexander Fleming  Discovered penicillin
  • 17. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?  Rosalind Elsie Franklin  Research led to the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA
  • 18. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?  James Watson and Francis Crick  Discovered DNA
  • 19. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?  Mary-Claire King  Mapped human genes for research of cancer treatments
  • 20. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology?  Ian Wilmut  Created the first true clone, the Dorset ewe Dolly
  • 21. What Is Molecular Biology?  Molecular biology- study of molecules in cells  Metabolism- processes by which organisms use nutrients  Anabolism- building tissues from smaller materials  Catabolism- breaking down materials into smaller components
  • 22. What Is a Cell?  Cell- a discrete unit of life  Unicellular organism- organism of one cell  Multicellular organism- organism of many cells  Prokaryote- cells that lack specific nucleus  Eukaryote- cells with well-defined nucleus
  • 23. What Is a Cell?  Cells are building blocks:  Tissue- collection of cells with specific functions  Organs- collections of tissues with specific functions  Organ systems- collections of organs with specific functions
  • 24. What Are the Structures in Molecular Genetics?  Molecular genetics- study of genes and how they are expressed  Chromosome- part of cell nucleus that contains heredity information and promotes protein synthesis  Gene- basic unit of heredity on a chromosome  DNA- molecule in a chromosome that codes genetic information
  • 25. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
  • 26. What Is Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)?  Transcription- process of RNA production by DNA  DNA-thread-like molecule which decodes DNA information
  • 27. What Is Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)?  Kinds of RNA:  mRNA- RNA molecules that carry information that specifies amino acid sequence of a protein molecule during translation  rRNA- RNA molecules that form the ribosomal subunits; Mediate the translation of mRNA into proteins  tRNA- molecules that decode sequence information in and mRNA  snRNA- very short RNA that interconnects with to promote formation of mRNA
  • 28. What Are Genetic Engineering Organisms?  Genetic engineering- artificially changing the genetic information in the cells of organisms  Transgenic- an organism that has been genetically modified  GMO- a genetically modified organism  GEO- a genetically enhanced organism
  • 29. How Can Genetically Engineered Plants Be Used?  Agriculture  Horticulture  Forestry  Environment  Food Quality
  • 30. How Do We Create Transgenic Organisms?  Donor cell- cell that provides DNA  Recipient cell- cell that receives DNA  Protocol- procedure for a scientific process  Three methods used in gene transfer  Agrobacterium gene transfer- plasmid  Ballistic gene transfer- gene gun  Direct gene transfer- enzymes
  • 31. How Does Agrobacterium Gene Transfer Work? 1. Extract DNA from donor 2. Cut DNA into fragments 3. Sort DNA fragments 4. Recombine DNA fragments 5. Transfer plasmids with bonded DNA 6. Grow transformed (recipient) cells
  • 32. What Are Methods of Classical Biotechnology?  Plant breeding- improvement of plants by breeding selected individuals to achieve desired goals  Cultivar- a cultivated crop variety
  • 33. What Are Methods of Classical Biotechnology?  Plant breeding methods;  Line breeding- breeding successive generations of plants among themselves  Crossbreeding- breeding plants of different varieties or species  Hybridization- breeding individuals from two distinctly different varieties  Selection
  • 34. Why Are Plants Genetically Engineered?  Resist pests  Resist herbicides  Improved product quality  Pharmaceuticals  Industrial products
  • 35. What Is AI?  Artificial insemination- the transfer of collected semen to a recipient female  Semen is collected from males of desired quality  Semen is graded and stored
  • 36. What Is AI?  Female must be in estrus for conception  Hormone injections may be used to synchronize estrus  Semen is placed in the cervix near the horns of the uterus
  • 37. What Is a Test Tube Baby?  In vitro fertilization- fertilization of collected ova outside the reproductive tract; Usually in a test tube  Semen is collected from males of desired quality  Ova are removed from females  Sperm and ova are placed in a petri dish or test tube
  • 38. What Is Gender Reversal?  Gender reversal- changing the sex of an animal  Very young animals receive hormone treatments  Most common among selected fish species
  • 39. What Is Gender Preselection?  Gender preselection- choosing the sex of offspring  Sperm sorted before conception  Sperm sorted on basis of chromosome differences  X chromosomes produce female offspring  Y chromosomes produce male offspring
  • 40. What Is Embryo Transfer?  Embryo transfer- removing fertilized ova (embryos) from donor and implanting in a recipient  Surgical and nonsurgical methods are used to remove and implant  A quality donor female can produce more offspring
  • 41. What Is Multiple Ovulation?  Multiple ovulation- promoting increased release of ova during estrus  Hormone injections administered prior to estrus  Used with embryo transfer  AI may be used to fertilize ova  After fertilization, embryos are removed and placed in recipients
  • 42. What Is Cloning?  Clone- new organism that has been produced asexually from a single parent  Genotype is identical to parent  Cells or tissues are cultured
  • 43. How Are Hormones Used in Animal Production?  Hormone- natural product of glands to produce a response in another part of the body  Released by endocrine glands into blood system  Hormones are identified, functions determined, and isolated  Used to increase growth and production rates  bST- promotes milk production in cows  pST- promotes lean meat production in swine
  • 44. What Is Bioremediation?  Bioremediation- using biological processes to solve environmental problems  Biodegradation- natural processes of microbes in breaking down hydrocarbon materials  Biodegradable- capable of being decomposed by microbes
  • 45. How Can Bioremediation Be Used?  Oil spills  Wastewater treatment  Heavy metal removal  Chemical degradation
  • 46. What Is Phytoremediation?  Phytoremediation- process of plants being used to solve pollution problems  Plants absorb and break down pollutants  Used with heavy metals, pesticides, explosives, and leachate
  • 47. What Is Composting?  Composting- a process that promotes biological decomposition of organic matter  Compost bin- a facility that contains materials for composting  In-vessel composting- using enclosed containers for composting
  • 48. What Are Bioethics?  Ethics- knowing right from wrong, and then doing the right idea  Bio- living organisms  Bioethics- knowing right from wrong with living organisms, and then doing the right idea  http://www.oelwein.k12.ia.us/hs/Ag.Hom
  • 49. Creating Bioethics Arguments  Read this article from the school website http://www.oelwein.k12.ia.us/hs/Ag.Hom  After you read this article prepare ethical arguments with at least 5 Scientific and Factual claims to support your Premise and Conclusion
  • 50. Ethical Arguments  Create an ethical argument for or against the following topics  Human Cloning  Gender Reversal on Livestock  Gender Reversal on Humans  Genetic Engineering of Plants  Genetic Engineering of Humans
  • 51. Creating a Premise  “Human cloning is immoral.”  Now you must find Scientific and Factual Claims to support your Premise  After you have at least 5 Claims, you may conclude, “Therefore, human cloning is immoral.”  You do not have to be for or against any of the topics, it’s your choice!