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Nanotechnology in veterinary medicine

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  • 1. Rajasokkappan.S
  • 2.
    • 1959, Feynman’s talk “There is plenty of room at the bottom”
    • 1965, Moore’s original paper
    • 1981, Drexler began popularizing the "Molecular Manufacturing,”
    • 1984, invention of STM [Binning]
    • 1985, discovery of fullerens [smalley]
    • 1986, invention of AFM
    • 1990, IBM written in Xenon
  • 3.
    • Relatively larger surface area
    • Chemically more reactive and affect their strength or electrical properties
    • Quantum effects of materials - that affect the optical, electrical and magnetic behaviour of materials
  • 4.  
  • 5.
      • Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
      • Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)
      • Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM)
  • 6.
    • Small silicon tip as probe - make images of sample material
    • Probe moves along surface
    • Electrons of atoms in sample repel those in probe
    • Creates 3-D images
  • 7.
    • High-energy electron beam to probe material with thickness < 100 nm
    • Some electrons are absorbed or bounced off object; some pass through the object and make magnified images
    • Digital camera records images
  • 8.
    • Nanosized probe to scan objects and materials
    • Uses tunneling to detect surface and creates a map of surface
    • Rate of electrons that tunnel from probe to surface related to distance between probe and surface
  • 9.
    • Antimicrobial agent
    • Nanoparticles that deliver chemotherapy drugs
    • Nanotubes used in broken bones to provide a structure for new bone material to grow
    • Nanoshells that concentrate the heat from infrared light to destroy cancer cells with minimal damage to surrounding healthy cells.
    • Q.dots that identify the location of cancer cells in the body
    • Nanoparticles that can attach to cells infected with various diseases in a blood sample, the particular disease
  • 10.
    • One dimension
    • Less than 100nm
    • Nanoscale layers
      • Eg. thin films or surface coatings like computer chips
    • Two dimensions
    • Nanowires and nanotubes
    • Three dimensions
    • Precipitates
    • Colloids and Quantum dots (tiny particles of semiconductor materials)
  • 11.
    • Dispersion of preformed polymers
    • Polymerization of monomers
    • Ionic gelation or coacervation of hydrophilic polymers
  • 12.
    • Nanoparticles prepared from such as proteins, polysaccharides and synthetic polymers
    • The selection of matrix materials is dependent on (Kreuter )
    • Size of nanoparticles required
    • Inherent properties of the drug, e.g., aqueous solubility and stability
    • Surface characteristics such as charge and permeability
    • Degree of biodegradability, biocompatibility and toxicity
    • Drug release profile desired
    • Antigenicity of the final product
  • 13.
    • Liposomes, polymer nanoparticles (nanospheres and nanocapsules)
    • Solid lipid nanoparticles, nanocrystals, polymer therapeutics such as dendrimers, fullerenes (most common as C 60 or buckyball, similar in size of hormones and peptide a-helices)
    • Inorganic nanoparticles (e.g. gold and magnetic nanoparticles)
  • 14.
    • Fullerenes, a carbon allotrope
    • The buckminster fullerene is the most common form of fullerene
    • 7 Å in diameter with 60 carbon atoms arranged in a shape known as truncated icosahedrons
    • It resembles a soccer ball with 20 hexagons and 12 pentagons
  • 15.
    • Nanotubes -
    • opened on two sides with additional atom groups added in the characteristic hexagon shape to form a hollow carbon tube (cylinder)
    • Sheet of graphite (a hexagonal lattice of carbon) rolled into a cylinder
    • This nanotubes are used to tracking oestrus in animals - detect the estradiol antibody at the time of oestrus by near infrared fluorescence
    • Used in gene therapy
  • 16.  
  • 17.
    • Dendrimers are nanomolecules with regular branching structures
    • The branches arise from the core in shape of a spherical structure by means of polymerisation
    • This results in formation of cavities within the dendrimer molecule which can be used for drug transport
    • The ends of the dendrimer molecule can be attached with other molecules for transport
  • 18.
    • Dendrimer - antimicrobial agents against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli
    • Synthetic nanomaterials will be the diagnoses, treatment and eradication of malignant tumors that commonly affect the small animal geriatric population
    • Alternative to direct irradiation of tumors
    • Dendrimers can act as carriers, called vectors, in gene therapy
  • 19.
    • A 2-10 nm nano-scale crystalline structure made from cadmium selenide
    • Re-emits the white light in a couple of nanoseconds - specific color
    • which can be made to fluorescence when stimulated by light
    • Their structure consists of an inorganic core, the size of which determines the colour emitted, an inorganic shell and an aqueous organic coating to which biomolecules are conjugated
    • These particles enable powerful new approaches to genetic analysis, drug discovery, and disease diagnostics
  • 20.  
  • 21.
    • Quantum dots - emit light at any wavelength
    • Inserted almost anywhere, including liquid solution, dyes etc
    • Quantum dots can be attached to a variety of surface ligands, and inserted into a variety of organisms for in-vivo research
    • quantum dots respond to light it may be possible to illuminate the body with light and stimulate the quantum dot to heat up sufficient to kill the cancerous cell
  • 22. Name Size Composition Details Quantum Dots 2-10 nm Colloidal fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Central core consists of elements from groups II - VI of the periodic table Dendrimers <15 nm Highly branched synthetic polymers with a layered architecture - consisting of a central core, an internal region, and several terminal groups Magnetic nanoparticles 10-20 nm Spherical nanocrystals with Fe 2+  and Fe 3+  core surrounded by dextran or PEG (polyethelene glycol) molecules Gold nanoparticles <50 nm Can be prepared into different geometries - nanospheres, nanoshells, nanorods, or nanocages Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) <100 nm Coaxial graphite sheets
  • 23.
    • Nano pharmaceuticals – Drug delivery system
    • Early diagnosis of disease
    • Nano therapy
  • 24.
    • The development of ‘smart’ treatment delivery systems on the nanoscale uses similar concepts applied at the molecular level.
    • For example, ‘smart’ drug delivery systems in animals would most likely contain small, sealed packages of the drug to be delivered.
    • The packages would not be opened until they reach the desired location in the animal, e.g. the site of infection.
  • 25.  
  • 26.
    • Time-controlled
    • Spatially Targeted
    • Self-regulated
    • Remotely Regulated
    • Pre-programmed
  • 27.
    • The silver nanoparticles show efficient antimicrobial property compared to other salts
    • Most effective on E.Coli, S.aureus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas
    • The nanoparticles preferably attack the respiratory chain, cell division finally leading to cell death
    • The STEM (Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy) confirms the presence of silver in the cell membrane and inside the bacteria
    • Silver nanoparticles in most studies are suggested to be non-toxic. But it suggested to be hazardous to the environment (Braydich-Stolle et al., 2005)
  • 28.
    • The current systems are limited by their selectivity and efficiency to concentrate rare cells for molecular assays
    • Nanoscience can detect - circulating cancer cells, which present often at 1–2 cells per milliliter of blood.
    • Combinatorial use of magnetic nanoparticles and semiconductor QDs - increase the ability to capture and evaluate these rare circulating cancer cells
    • Bionanobarcodes, nanocantilevers, and nanowires are promising technologies
  • 29.  
  • 30.
    • Cancer cells detection
    • Protein and nucleic acid detection based on biobarcode-amplification
    • Gold nanoparticles are modified with both target capture strands and bar code strands that are subsequently hybridized to bar code DNA, and magnetic microparticles modified with target capture strands (BCA)
    • Gold nanoparticles and the magnetic microbeads form sandwich structures that are magnetically separated from solution.
    • Unhybridized bar code DNA are removed
    • The bar codes (hundreds to thousands per target) are detected by using a colorimetric method
  • 31.
    • QD staining provides spatial localization information (both inter- and intracellular),
    • QD probes are delivered to tumors by both a passive targeting mechanism and an active targeting mechanism
    • In the passive mode, macromolecules and nanometer-sized particles are accumulated preferentially at tumor sites through the Enhanced permeability and retention (EPR)effect.
    • For active tumor targeting, Gao et al. used antibody conjugated QDs to target a specific membrane antigen.
  • 32.  
  • 33.  
  • 34. Multifunctional nanoparticles for integrated cancer imaging and therapy
  • 35.  
  • 36.  
  • 37.
    • Vaccines require immunostimulating compounds, adjuvants, which act nonspecifically to increase the immune response to a defined antigen
    • Nanometer adjuvants are
    • Liposome
    • ISCOM based adjuvant
    • Biobullets
    • Virus like particles
    • Nano-particles - 40–50 nm - potential to induce potent cell mediated (CD 4 and CD 8 T cells) as well as humoral immune responses
  • 38.
    • VLP vaccine against BT & AHS – strong protection
    • ISCOM based vaccines effective on H 5 N 1 in chickens and EHV - 2 in horses
    • Liposomes added vaccines protect the cattle against BVDV
    • Liposomes have also been used to deliver allergen extracts as immunotherapy for refractory canine atopic dermatitis
    • “ Biobullets” made of photopolymerized PEG hydrogels can serve as biodegradable bullets used to wild animals for vaccination. Eg. Bruella abortus
  • 39.