-285750161925<br />Don Bosco Technical Institute – Makati<br />Don Chino Roces Ave. Makati City<br />High School Departmen...
Significance of the Study……………………………………4
General & Specific Objectives……………………………..4
Scope & Limitations………………………………………....4
Review of Related Literature……………………………….5
Definition of Relevant Terms……………………………….6</li></ul>Chapter 2: Materials & Methods<br /><ul><li>Materials……………………………………………...
Procedures…………………………………………………......7</li></ul>Chapter 3: Results & Analysis<br /><ul><li>Charts…………………………………………………………..8</...
CDS Cell: Photoresistor
POT: Pentiometer
LED: Light Emitting Diode
IC: Integrated Circuit
PIR Sensor: Passive Infrared Sensor</li></ul>V. Methods<br /><ul><li>Materials
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IP II proposal (updated)

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Transcript of "IP II proposal (updated)"

  1. 1. -285750161925<br />Don Bosco Technical Institute – Makati<br />Don Chino Roces Ave. Makati City<br />High School Department<br />Title: How to make a Motion Detector<br />Submitted by: <br /> Leader: Mercado, Aljen<br /> Members: Nepumoceno, Julian<br /> Motwani, Sohan<br />Submitted to: Mr. Jerson S. Villar<br />S.Y. 2010-2011<br />Table of Contents<br />Chapter 1: Introduction <br /><ul><li>Background………………………………………….............4
  2. 2. Significance of the Study……………………………………4
  3. 3. General & Specific Objectives……………………………..4
  4. 4. Scope & Limitations………………………………………....4
  5. 5. Review of Related Literature……………………………….5
  6. 6. Definition of Relevant Terms……………………………….6</li></ul>Chapter 2: Materials & Methods<br /><ul><li>Materials………………………………………………………..7
  7. 7. Procedures…………………………………………………......7</li></ul>Chapter 3: Results & Analysis<br /><ul><li>Charts…………………………………………………………..8</li></ul>Chapter 4: Conclusion and Recommendation………………………………………..9<br />Chapter 5: Acknowledgement………………………………………………………….10<br />Chapter 6: References………………………………………………………………….11<br />Chapter 6: Index of Pictures<br /><ul><li>Photos………………………………………………………….12</li></ul>Abstract<br />Motion Detectors are very common nowadays, because they help conserve electricity, and also help catch thieves, and not to mention they are also used to protect your belongings, Motion Detectors are common in connection to lights and security, whenever a person enters and this device detects him/her and automatically turns on the light, and as the person leaves it turns it off, so it’s not a hassle to still look for the switch, or you accidentally forgot to shut off the lights this little device does all the work, that was for the light aspect, while for the Security Aspect, it detects the movement of a person, this is commonly found in homes and businesses, to catch thieves entering/tampering with your property.<br />The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate how this little product reacts to motion. The Motion Detector also known as the GHANTA detector is a type of electronic device that contains an electronic sensor that detects motion that can be either integrated in it or also can be connected to other external devices that agile the user of the existence of a moving object within the field of view. They play a very important role in the field of security, for both homes and businesses. The Motion Detector contains a motion sensor that transforms the detection of motion into an electric signal. And so which is used by us, to make our lives easier. So the purpose of this experiment is to see whether it complies with the terms of Security & whether it is really useful in terms of security.<br />IV. Introduction:<br />Background:<br />The detection of motion finds its origin in the field of astronomy, which dates from thousands of years ago. Early farmers looked on to the skies and utilized the movement of stars to determine when to plant their crops and when to harvest them. The first motion detection system radar was initiated by Heinrich Hertz. Hertz studied the properties of waves and found out that waves could bounce off of objects and had different speeds. These motion detectors were also used in World War II, They were already so advance, that the military could detect advance attacks against them, and so could prepare & protect themselves from these attacks.<br />Significance of the Study: <br />The significance of this product is to detect & prevent us humans from serious accidents. An example of a use is with industrial equipment, there are new motion detectors that can detect when a person's arm gets too close to machinery, and alarm to warn the person. There are also motion detectors, usually used in supermarkets, wherein the door automatically opens as it senses a human or an object in front of it.<br />General & Specific Objectives:<br />The General target or objective of this project is to detect motion and light the bulb when it detects motion. The Specific objectives are the purpose of the experiments, the first experiment was to determine the correctness of position of parts. The second experiment was to determine the proper placement of the wirings. The third experiment was to determine the functionality of the project. The fourth experiment was to determine the main purpose, meaning the correct detection of the project.<br />Scope & Limitations: <br />One thing that confuses PIR sensors, is a brick wall that is hit by the sun during some part of the day. The brick wall, becomes very hot, obviously because of the heat of the sun, and even a human moving in front of it is not detected much rather than the heat of the wall, so it reacts to a lot of things and not only humans. Another limitation of these devices is that depending on the background they may take a little time to detect motion. In this, common devices take a couple of seconds to be sensed by the detector.<br />Related Literature:<br />Breadboard:<br />A breadboard is known as a construction base for a prototypes. In modern times such as today the term is commonly used to refer to a particular type of breadboard known as the solderless breadboard, this is used commonly in experiments, & this required no soldering, so you don’t destroy the parts & you can reuse them again & also correct your connections easily.<br />Operational Amplifiers (OP AMP):<br />An operational amplifier also known as the OP AMP is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier which has a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output. An operational amplifier gives off an output voltage that is typically hundreds of thousands of times larger than the voltage change between its input terminals.<br />CDS Cells:<br />A photoresistor also known as a light dependent resistor (LDR) or cadmium sulfide (CdS) cell is a resistor whose resistance decreases with increasing incident of light intensity, so more light intensity means lesser resistance. It can also be accredited to as a photoconductor.<br />Pentiometer:<br />A potentiometer (commonly known as a "pot") is a three-terminal resistor meaning with three terminals which has a sliding contact that courses an adjustable voltage divider. If only two terminals are used (one side and the wiper), it represents a variable resistor. Potentiometers are commonly used to control electrical devices common in audio equipment such as amplifiers and amplified speakers for volume & other audio controls. Potentiometers operated by a mechanism that can be used as position transducers, such as, in a joystick.<br />Definition of relevant terms:<br /><ul><li>OP AMP: Operational Amplifiers
  8. 8. CDS Cell: Photoresistor
  9. 9. POT: Pentiometer
  10. 10. LED: Light Emitting Diode
  11. 11. IC: Integrated Circuit
  12. 12. PIR Sensor: Passive Infrared Sensor</li></ul>V. Methods<br /><ul><li>Materials
  13. 13. 2 - Cds Cells (Photocells)
  14. 14. 1 - 741 Op Amp
  15. 15. 1 - 1 kilo ohm resistor
  16. 16. 1 - LED
  17. 17. 1 - 9 volt battery breadboard
  18. 18. 1 - 10K potentiometer
  19. 19. Procedure</li></ul>Take the breadboard and the IC (741 OP AMP) and place it in the middle, why in the middle? So that other connections don’t interfere, it’s because all breadboard nodes are interconnected to each other. The IC (741 Op Amp) has 8 pins, pin number 1 will be the one closest to the little circle usually found on the top right of the OP AMP and pins 2 to 8 will be counterclockwise from that particular spot. After placing the Op Amp on the breadboard, put one pin of a Photocell in the node connected to pin number two most probably the node above pin number 2 of the op amp and the other CDS pin in the seventh pin probably 1 node below the IC’s node position. The other CDS cell similarly connects to pins two and four of the op amp, both above the IC’s connected nodes. Connect the middle pin of the potentiometer to pin three of the op amp, most probably it will be easier if you use a wire, the right pin of the pentiometer, to pin seven of the op amp, using a wire again and next the left pin of the pentiometer, to pin four of the op amp, you can just place the op amp on a node on the breadboard connected to pin 1 and then on the next node below it connect a wire to pin 4 so it similarly connects to pin 4. Connect the negative usually the black wire of the battery to pin 4 of the op amp, this is going to connect or be placed above the wire that you used to connect the pentiometer. Next connect the negative side of the LED to pin number 6 of the OP AMP or IC, an indication of the negative part is it is a smaller lead than the other one, meaning the longer one is positive polarity. Connect the positive pin of the LED to the 1K Ohm resistor. Connect the other side of the 1K OHM resistor to pin seven of the IC (op amp). Connect the positive battery wire usually red in color to pin seven of the IC or op amp. The last step is to just connect the positive & negative sides of the battery to the corresponding wires, or you could just use basic 9 volt battery connectors, and finally adjust the pentiometer if needed.<br />VI. Result & Analysis:<br />First Try: Our First Try was not so good, wires were all messy & were not functioning.<br />Second Try: We used a tester to test if current was really flowing through the battery & breadboard then we discovered that the wires were not touching the bradboard.<br />Third Try: We succeeded in connecting the wires & LED Light, but the project was not detecting motion maybe some of the components were not really attached well to the breadboard.<br />Fourth & Last Try: The Product finally worked, as you hover you hand or finger over the Photcell the LED lights if you remove it it turns of, in place of a LED you can replace it with a 9 Volt battery powered buzzer.<br />VII. Conclusion:<br />All objectives were achieved. We were able to make the project detect motion. As a sample testing we hovered our hands over one of the CDS Photocells of the project & to our surprise the bulb actually lit. All connections were corrected & all part placements were corrected, and so I conclude that the project was a success.<br />VIII. Recommendation:<br />The only recommendations we can give is if possible the bulb mmay be replaced with a good & well sounding buzzer. Because using the bulb is not much informative, so we suggest to use a 9 volt battery compatible buzzer so that when it detects motion it will alarm and so you may be alerteed by that certain sound.<br />IX. Acknowledgement<br />Dear teachers, parents and group mates,<br />We would like to thank the following for their assistance and support for our investigatory project in biology:<br />Mr. Jerson A. Villar (biology teacher)<br />Ma’am. Jo (Biology & Chemistry Lab Assistant)<br />Mr & Mrs Mercado<br />Mr & Mrs Nepomuceno<br />Mr & Mrs Motwani<br />We give our indebted to:<br />The parents of each & every member of our group for cooperating with us & so making our project a success. Similarly we would also like to thank our biology teacher Mr. Jerson for allowing us to take this topic & experiment on it.<br />Thanks again for your support,<br />Aljen Mercado and Members.<br />X. References:<br /><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potentiometer
  20. 20. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photoresistor
  21. 21. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operational_amplifier
  22. 22. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breadboard
  23. 23. http://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-Motion-Detector
  24. 24. http://www.ehow.com/how_4604011_build-motion-detector.html</li></ul>XI. Index of Pictures:<br />123825-154940<br /><ul><li>Parts

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