M.A English Literature
∗ Research can be defined as the search for knowledge,
or as any systematic investigation, to establish novel
facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new
ideas, or develop new theories, usually using a
Sohail Ahmed M.A English Literature 2
∗ Applied Research
∗ Basic(Pure or Fundamental) Research.
Types of Research
Sohail Ahmed M.A English Literature 3
• Applied research is designed to solve practical
problems of the modern world, rather than to
acquire knowledge for knowledge's sake. One
might say that the goal of the applied scientist is
to improve the human condition .
improve agricultural crop production.
treat or cure a specific disease.
• Basic (fundamental or pure ) research is driven by
a scientist's curiosity or interest in a scientific
question. The main motivation is to expand man's
knowledge , not to create or invent something.
How did the universe begin?
What are protons, neutrons, and electrons
∗ Title Page
∗ Research Topic
∗ Literature Review Comments
∗ Research Objectives
∗ Research Questions
Format of Proposal
Sohail Ahmed M.A English Literature 6
Use APA Style
∗ Parts of Title Page
∗ Running Head
∗ Title of Research
∗ Your Name
∗ Course Name
∗ Name of Course Coordinator
∗ Date of Submission
Sohail Ahmed M.A English Literature 7
∗ Research topic should be
∗ Related to filed
Sohail Ahmed M.A English Literature 8
∗ The introduction provides a brief overview that tells a
fairly well learned reader what the proposal is about. It
might be as short as a single page, but it should be very
clearly written, and it should let one assess whether the
research is relevant to their own.
Sohail Ahmed M.A English Literature 9
∗ Literature review is an important part of the research
proposal. It contains critical review of the information
you have used and will be using for the work. The
purpose of literature review is to let the readers know
that you have sufficient knowledge of the
Literature Review Comments
Sohail Ahmed M.A English Literature 10
∗ Why is this work important?
∗ Show why this is it important to answer this question.
∗ What are the implications of doing it?
∗ How does it link to other knowledge?
∗ How does it stand to inform policy making?
Objectives give answer these types
Sohail Ahmed M.A English Literature 11
∗ A research question poses a relationship between two or
more variables but phrases the relationship as a
∗ What are basic causes of Dengue Fever?
∗ What are the Symptoms of Dengue Fever?
Sohail Ahmed M.A English Literature 12
∗ This section should make clear to the reader the way that you
intend to approach the research question and the techniques and
logic that you will use to address it.
∗ List down the kind of design (case study, content analysis) you
have chosen for your research and the methods you will be
using for data collection and analysis.
Sohail Ahmed M.A English Literature 13
∗ Use APA Style for References.
∗ McBride, D. M., & Wagman, J. B. (1997). Rules for reporting statistics in
papers. Journal of APA Style Rules, 105, 55-67.
∗ Smith, K. C. (2006). How to write an APA-style paper in psychology, Journal of
APA Style Rules, 114, 23-34.
Sohail Ahmed M.A English Literature 14