Carbohydrates 101


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Simplifed introduction into Carbohydrates which includes carbohydrates testing and digestion

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Carbohydrates 101

  1. 1. CarbohydratesDone by: Valerie, Jilian, and Catherine
  2. 2. CarbohydratesHydrates of carbonChemical compositionof (CH2O)nPrimary source ofenergy for our bodiesGood source of fiberand vitamins
  3. 3. CarbohydratesRich in phytonutrientsParticipate in manyessential bodyfunctionsTwo types - simple andcomplex
  4. 4. Simple CarbohydratesFruits, milk, andvegetablesSimple sugars found inrefined sugar foods e.g. sweets, cakesMonosaccharides &disaccharides
  5. 5. MonosaccharidesSimplest carbohydrateBasic sugar unitThree variations: glucose, fructose, galactose
  6. 6. Monosaccharides Glucose Fructose Galactose Mild sweet Sweetest Hardly tastes flavour sugar sweet Known as Found in fruits and Rarely found "blood sugar" honey naturally aloneEssential energy Added to soft source drinks, cereals
  7. 7. DisaccharidesMade up of two monosaccharidesFormed through condensationTaken apart via electrolysisThree types: sucrose, lactose, maltose
  8. 8. Disaccharides Sucrose Lactose MaltoseFructose and Glucose and 2 Glucose units glucose galactoseFound in table Found in milk Not abundant sugar Produced when starch breaks down
  9. 9. Complex CarbohydratesProvide vitamins,minerals, and fiberFound in breads,pasta, and starchyvegetablesPolysaccharides
  10. 10. PolysaccharidesChains of monosaccharidesGlycogen and starch built purely on glucoseFiber variety of monosaccharides and carbohydrate derivatives
  11. 11. GlycogenLimited in meat and not found in plantsNot an essential source of carbohydratesGlucose is always stored as glycogen easy release of energy in long chains
  12. 12. StarchFound in plants and stored in plant cellsCreated through photosynthesisBody hydrolyzes plant starch into glucose
  13. 13. FiberStructural parts of plantsFibers are not broken down during digestiveprocessTwo types - soluble and insoluble
  14. 14. Fiber Soluble Insoluble Easily digested by Promotes bowel movement bacteria in colon Associated with protection against heart Alleviates constipation disease and diabetes Found in grains andFound in legumes and fruits vegetables
  15. 15. Testing forCarbohydrates
  16. 16. Testing for CarbohydratesBenedicts Test forReducing SugarsIodine Test for Starch
  17. 17. Benedicts TestUsed to test for presence of reducing sugars all monosaccharides disaccharides: lactose and maltoseRequires use of Benedicts Reagent prepared from CuSO4, NaOH, tartaric acid
  18. 18. Benedicts Test1. Dissolve food sample in water2. Add small amount of Benedicts Reagent3. Heat in water bath from 4 - 10 minutes4. Positive test indicated by a brick red solution
  19. 19. How can we test for Sucrose?
  20. 20. Testing for SucroseSucrose is a non-reactive substance does not react with Benedicts ReagentBreak down with dilute Hydrochloric Acid beforetesting broken down into fructose and glucose
  21. 21. Iodine TestUsed to test for starchRequires use of Iodinesolution dissolve iodine in potassium iodide
  22. 22. Iodine Test1. Add Iodine solution directly to food sample2. A dark blue-black colour indicates presence of starch
  23. 23. Carbohydrate Digestion
  24. 24. Carbohydrate DigestionBreak down carbohydrate into glucose able to be absorbed and used by bodyStarch - extensive breakdownDisaccharides - broken down onceMonosaccharides - need not be broken down
  25. 25. Carbohydrate DigestionOccurs throughout digestive systemBegins in mouth chewing releases saliva starch broken down by enzymes into polysaccharides and maltose
  26. 26. Digestion in the StomachNo enzymes available for starch breakdownAcid does minor breakdownFibers provide feeling of "fullness"
  27. 27. Digestion in the Small IntestinePrimary site of carbohydrate digestionPancreatic enzyme reduces carbohydrates intoglucose chains or disaccharidesSpecific enzymes are present to fully reducedisaccharides
  28. 28. Digestion in the Large Intestine1 to 4 hours for sugars and starches to be fullydigestedOnly fibers remain retain water to soften stool
  29. 29. In SummaryCarbohydrates areimportant for dailylivingDigestion is a complexand thorough processCan be tested usingvarious methods
  30. 30. Thank You!