Grammar books semeser 2
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Grammar books semeser 2

on

  • 666 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
666
Views on SlideShare
657
Embed Views
9

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0

1 Embed 9

http://ehsspanish3h.pbworks.com 9

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Grammar books semeser 2 Grammar books semeser 2 Presentation Transcript

  • Grammar Book
    Sofía Thompson
    1st
  • Table of Contents 1st semester
    Preterit
    Trigger Words Preterit
    Car, Gar, Zar
    Spock Verbs
    Snake and Snakey
    Cucaracha
    Imperfect
    Tigger Words Imperfect
    Irregulars
    Preterit vs. Imperfect
    Ser vs. Estar
    Verbs like Gustar
    Comparatives/Superlatives
    Transition Words
    Future
    Trigger Words Future
    Irregulars
    Por
    Para
    Conditional
    Irregulars
  • Preterit
    AR ER/IR
    • For actions that can be viewed as single events
    • For actions that were repeated a specific number of times
    • For actions that occurred during a specific period of time
    • For actions that were part of a chain of events
    • To state the beginning or the end of an action
    • Completed actions
    • Express beginning/end of a completed action
    • Narrate a series of past actions/events
  • Preterit
    Trigger Words
    anoche
    a las ocho
    el __ pasado
    ayer
    un día
    Hace __ que__
    ante ayer
    el martes
    una vez
    el mes pasado
  • Car, Gar, Zar Verbs
    -CAR changes to qué
    -GAR changes to gué
    -ZAR changes to cé
    NOTE: ONLY CHANGES IN THE YO FOURM!
    jugar
    buscar
    almorzar
  • Spock Verbs
    Ir/Ser
    Dar/Ver
    Hacer
  • Snake and Snakey
    Stem changers in usted and ustedes
    can change e ~ i or o ~u
    Need to have “y” in the usted and ustedes
  • Cucaracha
    andar
    estar
    poder
    poner
    querer
    saber
    tener
    venir
    conducir
    producir
    traducir
    decir
    traer
    anduv-
    estuv-
    pud-
    pus-
    quis-
    sup-
    tuv-
    vin-
    conduj-
    produj-
    traduj-
    dij-
    traj-
    endings
    }
    eron* in the ellos/ellas/ustedes fourm
  • Imperfect
    AR ER/IR
    • For actions that were repeated habitually
    • For actions that “set the stage” for another past action
    • For telling time
    • For stating one’s age
    • For mental states (usually)
    • For physical sensations (usually)
    • To describe the characteristics of people, things, or conditions
  • Imperfect Trigger Words
    mientas
    siempre
    a menudo
    frecuentemente
    todos los días
    a veces
    de vez en cuando
    muchas veces
    cada días
    los lunes
  • Irregulars
    Ir
    Ver
    Ser
  • Preterit vs. Imperfect
    • Has a definite ending
    • Has a beginning/ending
    • The most recent past
    • Perfected time
    • Interrupting action
    • Snapshot
    • The distant past
    • No definite ending or beginning
    • Imperfected time
    • Continuous action
    • Movie
  • Ser vs. Estar
    DOCTORPED
    description
    HELPING
    health
    origin
    emotions
    characteristics
    location
    time
    present condition
    }
    occupation
    -ando
    -endo
    -yendo
    relationship
    possession
    events
    dates
  • Verbs like Gustar
    • Singular form used when infinitive form of verb follows
    • Often used in the conditional (would, should, could) to soften request
    • Use with pronouns : Me
    Te
    Le
    Nos
    Les
    aburrir
    faltar
    importar
    fascinar
    encantar
    doler
    quedar
    disgustar
    interesar
    apetecer
    preocupar
    molestar
  • Comparatives/Superlatives
    más (adjective) que
    el/la más (adjective) de
    menos (adjective) que
    el/la menos (adjective) de
    NOTE: Do not need adjective with these
    Irregulars:
    bueno ~ mejor
    viejo ~ mayor
    malo ~ peor
    joven ~ menor
    With numbers:
    más de or menos de with number
    tan (adjective) como
    ******* must use adjective after tan!!
  • Transition Words
  • Future
    • All verbs use the same endings
    • Must include the inifinitive of the verb with the appropriate ending
  • Future
    Transition Words
    mañana
    dos horas
    proximodía
  • Irregulars
    NOTE: Use with the same endings as regular future tense verbs
  • Por
    • Passing through (PORtal)
    • General rather than specific location (PORtugal)
    • How long something lasts (PORever)
    • the cause of something (PORpuse)
    • an exchange (imPORt/exPORt)
    • doing something in place of or instead of something else (I’m POR, pay POR me)
    • a means of transportation (transPORtation)
  • Para
    • For whom something is done (surprise PARAty)
    • Destination (PARAguy)
    • The purpose for which something is done (PARAsites)
    • To express an opinion (PARAdon me)
    • To contrast or compare
    • To express idea of a deadline (PARAmedic)
  • Conditional
    would
    Infinitive +
    should
    could
  • Irregulars
    Use the same endings as the regulars
  • Table of Contents 2nd semester
    Conditional + Irregulars
    Present Perfect
    Past Perfect
    Present perfect irregulars
    Subjunctive perfect
    Tanto y Tan
    Impersonal ‘Se’
    Saber vs. Conocer
    Los Mandatos
    Informal/Formal
    Affirmative
    Negative
    Irregular
    DOP + IOP placement
    Nosotros Commands
    Mono verbs
    Subjunctive and Irregulars
    Trigger phrases
    Impersonal expressions
    Expressions of Emotion
    Conjunctions of time
    Demonstrative Adjectives + Pronouns
  • Conditional + Irregulars
    • would; could; should
    • used for a possibility, probability, or wonder
  • Present Perfect
    • form of the present verb ‘hacer’ and the past participle of another verb
    • time in the past + still time
    • completed recently
    • have or have not done
  • Past Perfect
    • a compound tense
    • need the main verb and the verb had (haber)
  • Present Perfect Irregulars
  • Subjunctive Perfect
    • used when a verb or expression requires the subjunctive in the main clause is in the present, future, or present perfect
    • when the dependent clause is in the present or future, the present subjunctive is used
    • when the dependent clause is in the past, use the present perfect subjunctive
    haber + past participle
  • Tanto y Tan
    • tan: used with an adjective or adverb followed by como
    • tanto: used with a noun followed by como; can be tanto, tanta, tantos, tantas
  • Impersonal Se
    • use ‘se’ to avoid specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb
    • when using ‘se’, the verb is always in the 3rd person
    • ‘se’ can be used in all tenses
    • Se hizo mucho. Se haría mucho. Se había mucho
  • Saber vs. Conocer
    to know facts
    to know people, places, literary works
  • Los Mandatos
    the commands!
    • can be formal or informal
    • can be affirmative or negative
  • Informal/Formal
    usted/ustededs commands
    • put in the yo form of the verb
    • drop the ‘o’ and add the opposite ending (ar-e; er/ir-a)
    • plural, add an ‘n’
    • comer coma or coman
    tu commands
    • can be affirmative or negative
    • affirmitive: conjugate the verb in the 3rd person present
    hablarhabla
    • negative: conjugate to the ‘yo’ form, drop the o and add the opposite ‘tu’ ending
    hablar no hables
  • Affirmative
    Tu Commands (informal)
    • conjuate to the ‘tu’ form and drop the ‘s’
    • comer come
    • cantarcanta
  • Negative
    Tu Commands (informal)
    • put in the ‘yo’ form of the verb
    • opposite vowel (ar-e; er/ir-a)
    • add an ‘s’
    • comer no comas
  • Irregular
    informal
    TV DISHES
  • DOP + IOP Placement
    affirmative commands:
    • the object pronouns are attached at the end of the command of the verb; cómprelo
    • when dealing with direct and indirect object pronouns, the indirect object pronoun is attached before the direct object pronoun: cómpremelo
    negative commands:
    • the object pronoun must be placed before the command; it cannot be attached
    • just as with the affirmative commands, the direct object comes before the indirect object pronoun
  • Nosotros Commands
    • conjugate the ‘yo’ form of the verb in the present tense
    • drop the ‘o’ and add the opposite nosotros ending (ar-emos; eri/ir-amos)
    • hablarhablemos
    comer comamos
  • Mono Verbs
    • with reflexive verbs, conjugate the command the same as regular nosotros commands, drop the ‘s’ of the command then attach the reflexive pronoun; referred to as mono verbs
    • levantemoslevantémonos
  • Subjunctive and Irregulars
    • Present Subjunctive is conjugated just like commands; conjuate to the yo form and change to the opposite vowel ending.
    • The irregulars are conjugated in the irregular form and follow it. Irrgulars include dar, estar, ir, saber, and ser.
  • Trigger Phrases
    esmaloque
    esbuenoque
    luegoque
    esperarque
    esnecesarioque
    sentirque
    asique
    alegrar se de que
    hasta que
  • Impersonal Expressions
  • Expressions of Emotion
    • a main clause (hope, fear, joy, pity, surprise) followed by the subordinate clause (subjunctive)
  • Conjunctions of Time
    • for conjunctions of time, you take the indicative form when the action in the subordinate clause is either habitual or in the past
    • the subjunctive is used when the main clause is a command or in the future
  • Demonstrative Adjectives
    + Pronouns
    Singular
    Plural