Alexander the Great Ruler of the World
Why “the Great”? <ul><li>In ten years, Alexander of Macedonia created the largest empire in the world up to that time </li...
Alexander’s Empire
Alexander’s origins <ul><li>Born in Pella, Macedonia </li></ul><ul><li>Tutored by the Greek    </li></ul><ul><li>philosoph...
<ul><li>Philip </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander’s father </li></ul>Olympia Alexander’s mother                                  ...
Alexander Rules <ul><li>Philip was murdered in 336 B.C. by an assassin…maybe hired by his wife, Olympia… </li></ul><ul><li...
Securing his father’s empire <ul><li>Alexander squelched rebellions in the northern regions to the Danube River </li></ul>...
From Pompeii mosaic
Expanding the Empire <ul><li>Alexander’s forces of over 40,000 crossed at the Dardanelles into Asia, where he declared tha...
<ul><li>The Gordian Knot:  the legend behind the ancient knot was that the man who could untie it was destined to rule the...
Defeating Darius of Persia <ul><li>#1:  Alexander’s forced dispatched the Persian army, losing only 110 men (legend) </li>...
<ul><li>Major cities in Asia Minor and along the Phoenician coast surrendered to Alexander </li></ul>Alexander proceeded  ...
<ul><li>#3:  Yet again , Alexander’s forces defeated Darius, this time in Mesopotamia… </li></ul>Alexander was proclaimed ...
<ul><li>When Darius was found murdered by his own men, Alexander executed the assassins and gave Darius a royal funeral </...
Alexander’s divinity <ul><li>While in Egypt, Alexander </li></ul><ul><li>had visited the temple of  </li></ul><ul><li>Amon...
The limits of expansion <ul><li>In the spring of 327 BC, Alexander and his army marched into India </li></ul><ul><li>As he...
In India, Alexander’s horse was killed… <ul><li>Alexander on his favorite horse, Bucephalus </li></ul>Philip to Alexander ...
Retreat <ul><li>At the Indus, the Macedonians rebelled and refused to go any farther </li></ul><ul><li>The forces travelle...
Securing a legacy <ul><li>Alexander made Babylonia the capital of his Empire </li></ul><ul><li>He married one of Darius’ d...
Antigonus Ptolemy Seleucus
The mystery of Alexander’s death <ul><li>Alexander died of a fever at 33… but why? </li></ul><ul><li>Plutarch reports that...
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  1. 1. Alexander the Great Ruler of the World
  2. 2. Why “the Great”? <ul><li>In ten years, Alexander of Macedonia created the largest empire in the world up to that time </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander spread Greek culture, ensuring cultural diffusion and the survival of the qualities of classical Greece </li></ul>
  3. 3. Alexander’s Empire
  4. 4. Alexander’s origins <ul><li>Born in Pella, Macedonia </li></ul><ul><li>Tutored by the Greek </li></ul><ul><li>philosopher, Aristotle </li></ul><ul><li>His father, Philip, was king of Macedonia, and had conquered the Greek city states during his 27 year reign </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Philip </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander’s father </li></ul>Olympia Alexander’s mother                                                                                                                                              
  6. 6. Alexander Rules <ul><li>Philip was murdered in 336 B.C. by an assassin…maybe hired by his wife, Olympia… </li></ul><ul><li>So Alexander was only 20 </li></ul><ul><li>when he became king of </li></ul><ul><li>Macedonia </li></ul>                                                    
  7. 7. Securing his father’s empire <ul><li>Alexander squelched rebellions in the northern regions to the Danube River </li></ul><ul><li>In the process of reconquering the Greek city states, his forces destroyed Thebes, massacring all, including women and children </li></ul>
  8. 8. From Pompeii mosaic
  9. 9. Expanding the Empire <ul><li>Alexander’s forces of over 40,000 crossed at the Dardanelles into Asia, where he declared that the whole of Asia would be won by the spear </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The Gordian Knot: the legend behind the ancient knot was that the man who could untie it was destined to rule the entire world. </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander simply slashed the knot with his sword and unraveled it. </li></ul>The Gordian Knot
  11. 11. Defeating Darius of Persia <ul><li>#1: Alexander’s forced dispatched the Persian army, losing only 110 men (legend) </li></ul><ul><li>#2: Again Alexander was victorious, and Darius was forced to flee, abandoning is mother, wife and children to Alexander </li></ul>                  
  12. 12. <ul><li>Major cities in Asia Minor and along the Phoenician coast surrendered to Alexander </li></ul>Alexander proceeded to Egypt, where he established the city of Alexandria and was made pharaoh
  13. 13. <ul><li>#3: Yet again , Alexander’s forces defeated Darius, this time in Mesopotamia… </li></ul>Alexander was proclaimed king of Persia and Darius’s royal city and palace were burned to the ground… Again, Darius fled… Alexander pursued… Persepolis
  14. 14. <ul><li>When Darius was found murdered by his own men, Alexander executed the assassins and gave Darius a royal funeral </li></ul>Ruins of Persepolis                                                     
  15. 15. Alexander’s divinity <ul><li>While in Egypt, Alexander </li></ul><ul><li>had visited the temple of </li></ul><ul><li>Amon-Ra </li></ul><ul><li>The oracle proclaimed that Alexander was the divine son of Amon-Ra and destined to rule the world </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts arose with his Greek soldiers as he adopted Persian dress & demanded to be recognized as a god </li></ul>
  16. 16. The limits of expansion <ul><li>In the spring of 327 BC, Alexander and his army marched into India </li></ul><ul><li>As he conquered regions he allowed rulers to continue to govern in his name </li></ul>
  17. 17. In India, Alexander’s horse was killed… <ul><li>Alexander on his favorite horse, Bucephalus </li></ul>Philip to Alexander ( Plutarch, Alexander 6.8.) He mourned his loss and named a city in his honor Bucephalus 'O my son, look thee out a kingdom equal to and worthy of thyself, for Macedonia is too little for thee.'
  18. 18. Retreat <ul><li>At the Indus, the Macedonians rebelled and refused to go any farther </li></ul><ul><li>The forces travelled down the Indus and began the arduous journey back to Mesopotamia </li></ul><ul><li>His best friend, Hephaestion, died of a fever; to console himself, Alexander led a ferocious military campaign and went on a drinking binge </li></ul>
  19. 19. Securing a legacy <ul><li>Alexander made Babylonia the capital of his Empire </li></ul><ul><li>He married one of Darius’ daughters and “encouraged” 10,000 of his soldiers to take Persian wives </li></ul><ul><li>He died the following year at 33 before he could produce an heir and his kingdom was divided among 3 of his generals </li></ul>
  20. 20. Antigonus Ptolemy Seleucus
  21. 21. The mystery of Alexander’s death <ul><li>Alexander died of a fever at 33… but why? </li></ul><ul><li>Plutarch reports that he was had been plagued by several bad “omens” </li></ul><ul><li>Some others from the time claimed Alexander was poisoned during the drinking binge </li></ul>
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