Sofía Romero Fornier 2ºBAbel Maestre Pérez de Villar 2ºB
INDEX:Energy definition.Types of energy.Energy sources.Renewable energy.Non-renewable sources.Types of power stations.
Energy definitionEnergy is the capacity of an object of a body to transform an energy source
Types of energyMechanical energy: Kinetic energy. Potential energy.Electrical energy.Electromagnetic energy: Luminous energy.Sound energy.Chemical energy.Nuclear energy.Thermal or calorific energy.
Mechanical energyKinetic energy: It is the energy that objectshave when they are moving.Potential energy: It is the energy that objectshave when they are moved from their stableposition of equilibrium.
Electrical energyIt is the energy associated with an electric current that makes electrically powered machines work when theyre connected to a supply of electricity.
Electromagnetic energyTransported by electromagnetic waves, such as radio, television or X-ray waves.Luminous energy: It is a type of electromagnetic energy generated by the sun or artificial lights.
Sound energyIt is the energy associated with sound waves that are transmitted through vibratons.
Chemical energyIt is stored in sustances, during chemical processes can be released or absorbed.
Nuclear energyIt is contained in the nuclei of the atoms, during nuclear reactions it is released.
Thermal or calorific energyIt comes from the vibration of particles in matter. The temperature measures the thermal energy of an object.
Energy sourcesEnergy sources are natural resources that provide different forms of energy. This energy is transformed for specific uses.Renewable energy sources.Non-renewable energy sources.
Renewable energy sourcesHydraulic energy.Solar energy.Wind energy.Marine energy.Geothermal energy.Biomass.
Hydraulic energyThis is the mechanical energy produced by the movement of water.Production: Water is stored in dams. When the water is released from the dam and falls potential energy is transformed into kinetic. Kinetic energy makes the alternator rotates, and this transform kinetic energy into electricity.Transformation: Hydraulic energy produce electricity in hydroelectric power stations.
Hydraulic energyAdvantages: Its non-polluting. Its cheap. Its clean.Disadvantages: Building power stations is very expensive. Reservoirs can destroy villages. Reservoirs can damage the animal and plants life.
Solar energySolar energy take advantage of light to convert it into chemical energy.Production and transformation: To produce hot water, collectors use the suns heat to heat up the water that circulates in the pipes below.To generate electrical energy using solar panels. These panels contain photovoltaic cells that transform light into electricity.To produce electrical energy in heliostat fields.Heliostats are mirrors that reflect light from the sun and focus it onto a central collector. The collector converts the water into steam. A generator then produce electricity with the steam.
Solar energyAdvantages: Its clean. Big power stations are not needed. Its unlimited.Disadvantages: Its a variable source of energy. Solar panels are expensive.
Wind energyWind energy has been used since ancient times to move sailing ships.Production and transformation: Its produce by the effect of radiation on the atmosphere. Radiation produces different temperatures and heights in the atmosphere, which causes the air to move. When wind energy causes blades of a wind turbine to move, the winds kinetic energy is converted into electricity.
Wind energyAdvantages:Its unlimited and non-polluting.The cost of building and maintaining a wind farm is low.Disadvantages:Its a variable source of energy.Wind turbines are hazard for birds.Wind turbines produce noise pollution.
Marine energyThere are several means for generating energy from the sea: Tidal energy: It can be extracted from tides. Wave energy: Its obtained from the movement of sea waves. Ocean thermal energy: Its produced from the difference in temperature between the surface of the sea and the deep sea.
Geothermal energyThis energy comes from the heat stored in the earths crust.Sometimes it appears naturally, for example, geysers and volcanic eruptions. If the temperature is below 150 ºC, heat can be produced, if it is above 150 ºC, electricity can be produced.
BiomassThis is produced from plant remains, forest and agricultural waste and organic waste in sewage.Biomass is mainly used in two ways, to produce electricity and for transformation in fuels.
Non-renewable energy sourcesNuclear energy.Coal.Petroleum.Natural gas.
Nuclear energyProduction: Nuclear energy is stored in the nuclei of atoms. This is released in the nuclear reaction that occurs in certain atoms.There are two kinds Nuclear fusion: This is when two light nuclei join to form a heavier nucleus. Nuclear fission: This is when a heavy nucleus is split into two lighter nuclei by bombarding it with neutrons.
Nuclear energyTransformation: Nuclear power stations use fission energy.The thermal energy released by the reaction heats water and the water is converted into steam under high pressure. This steam moves the turbines of a generator to produce electrical energy.
CoalCoal was formed 300 million years ago from the remains of plants that were buried and transformed in the absence of oxygen. Its classified into four types depending on the amount of carbon it contains:Anthracite, bituminous coal, lignite and peat.
CoalExtraction: There are two methods for extracting coal: Open-cast mines: When the coal is close to the surface, soil is removed to expose it. The coal is extracted with special machinery and explosives. Underground mines: When the coal is buried deep below the surface, it must be mined underground. The mines consist of a network of shafts and tunnels.
CoalTransport: In the mine, its transported in carts or in lifts. After the coal is washed and crushed, it can be trasported: By sea: In enormous ships that can weigh up to 500000 t. By land: Normally by train, this is economical and trains can carry very large loads. By road: Usually for local transport.
Uses: Coal For energy: Nowadays: To generate electricity in conventional power stations. For central heating systems. In the past: For street lighting. As a domestic fuel.
PetroleumPetroleum is formed from the buried remains of plants and animals that have decomposed because of the bacterial action. Its a liquid substance, with a lower density than water. Its found in porous rocks under the sea and in other sedimentary basins, forming oil fields.
PetroleumExtraction: Petroleum is expensive and difficult to extract because its usually deep underground. A well is drilled on land or under the sea. The plataform built in the sea is called oil rig. The petroleum is extracted using pumps, or natural pressure in the well causes the oil to rise to the surface. The extracted petroleum contains salt water, rock, mud and gas, so its the purified.
PetroleumStorage and transport: The purified crude oil is stored in containers before its transported by oil tankers or oil pipelines. Oil tankers: Theyre specialised ships designed for intercontinental transport. The oil is dived into separate tanks in the ship for safety reasons. Oil pipelines: Theyre enormous steel pipes. They lie above ground on the surface or are buried in protected trenches.
PetroleumTransformation and uses: Derivates of crude oil are used in industry and heat engines. Fractional distillation is a process carried out in the refineries to produce these derivates: Liquefied gases, liquid fuels, fuel oil, light components and heavy components.
Natural gasNatural gas is a mixture of gases formed from decomposed plants and animals. It contains more than 70% mehane. Natural gas is found in underground gas fields and in porous rocks. Its often found along with petroleum deposits.Extraction: Natural gas is expensive to extract. Its extracted by drilling.
Natural gasStorage and transport:Natural gas is tranported from gas fields by gas pipelines. The gas is converted into liquid form. Its transported in specially designed ships called LNG carriers. When the LNG reaches its destination, the liquid gas is transformed into the gaseous state.
Natural gasUses: Gas for fuel is used in industry and in homes to produce thermal energy, and in thermal power stations to produce electricity.
Types of power stationsHydraulic power station.Solar power station.Nuclear power station.Thermal power station.Eolic power station
Hydraulic power stationA Hydraulic power station is a complex of installations and equipment that convert hydraulic energy into electricity.Power- generating equipment transform the energy of water moving under pressure into the mechanical energy of rotation, which in turn is transformed into electrical energy.
Solar power stationSolar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, using photovoltaics, or using concentrated solar power. Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors. Photovoltaics convert light into electric current using the photovoltaic effect.
Nuclear power stationNuclear power is the use of sustained nuclear fission to generate heat and electricity. Nuclear power stations provide about 6% of the worlds energy and 13–14% of the worlds electricity.
Thermal power stationA thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated.
Eolic power stationEolic power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity, windmills for mechanical power, windpumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships.
Wind turbinesWind turbines have long produced renewable energy but a French engineering firm has discovered another eco-purpose for the towering structures.He explains that the technology works by first generating electricity in the traditional manner of a wind turbine. This power enables the entire water generating system to function. The next stage sees air sucked in through the nose of the turbine via a device known as an “air blower”
Wind turbinesHe also said: Can hot air by the free fuel of the future?This technique could enable them to overcome these problems and make the island self- sufficient in a way thaat doesnt harm the environment.
Sofía RomeroFornier 2ºBAbel MaestrePérez de Villar 2ºB