44 XY 44 XX
44 XY
22 X 22 X22 Y
44 XX
SPERMS
OVULES
SEX DETERMINISM
IN HUMANS
HETEROGAMETIC SEX HOMOGAMETIC SEX
4646
23
23
46
46
46 46
Variability causes in Meiosis
1.Homologous Chromosomes
Separation during ANAPHASE
I.
A A A A
B B b b
C C C C
D D D D
E E e e
F
G
F F F
G g g
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
A
B
C
D
e
F
g
AA
b
C
D
e
F
g
b
C
D
E
F
G
Variability causes in Meiosis
2. Crossing over
RECOMBINATION OF GENES
Random Crossing over between
homologous chromosomes, as a
result........
Imagine that Recombination takes place
only in one pair of Chromosomes. From
the mother cell after Meiosis would
appear fo...
MEIOSIS I
MEIOSIS: A GENERAL VISION
MEIOSIS II
23 from father
23 from mother.
A
B
C
D1
E
F3
G2
H9
A
B
C
D1
E
F3
G2
H9
I
J
K
L
M
N1
O1
P
Q
I
J
K
L
M
N1
O1
P
Q
A
b
C
D2
E
F1
G2
H9
A
b
C
D2
E
F1
G2
H9
i
...
Crossing over and Recombination
The main events in Meiosis
2. Random Crossing
over between
homologous
chromosomes
1.Homologous
Chromosomes
Separate during...
1
2
34
5
6
HOMOLOGOUS
HOMOLOGOUS
CHROMOSOMES
ALIGN ALONG
METAPHASE PLATE
PROPHASE I
d) Anaphase I
PROPHASE II
i) Anaphase II
Variability causes in Meiosis
1. Crossing over
3.Separation of sister
Chromatides during ANAPHASE II
2.Homologous Chromoso...
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
A
B
C
D
e
F
g
AA
b
C
D
e
F
g
b
C
D
E
F
G
1. Crossing over
Exchange of Genetic Material between
Homologous Chromosomes
2.Homologous
Chromosomes
Separation during
ANAPHASE I
Either
or
A B
A B
A1
A2
A1 A2
A3 A4 A3
A4
ANAPHASE II
3.Separation of sister Chromatides during
ANAPHASE II
A B A A B B
C C C C
REPLICATION
S
H
O
M
O
L
O
G
O
U
S
C C C C
SYNAPSIS
C C C C
SYNAPSIS
C C C C
SYNAPSIS
CCCCCC
biologia7
biologia7
biologia7
biologia7
biologia7
biologia7
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biologia7

  1. 1. 44 XY 44 XX 44 XY 22 X 22 X22 Y 44 XX SPERMS OVULES SEX DETERMINISM IN HUMANS HETEROGAMETIC SEX HOMOGAMETIC SEX
  2. 2. 4646 23 23 46 46 46 46
  3. 3. Variability causes in Meiosis 1.Homologous Chromosomes Separation during ANAPHASE I.
  4. 4. A A A A B B b b C C C C D D D D E E e e F G F F F G g g
  5. 5. A B C D E F G A B C D e F g AA b C D e F g b C D E F G
  6. 6. Variability causes in Meiosis 2. Crossing over RECOMBINATION OF GENES
  7. 7. Random Crossing over between homologous chromosomes, as a result........
  8. 8. Imagine that Recombination takes place only in one pair of Chromosomes. From the mother cell after Meiosis would appear four types of ovules.
  9. 9. MEIOSIS I MEIOSIS: A GENERAL VISION MEIOSIS II
  10. 10. 23 from father 23 from mother.
  11. 11. A B C D1 E F3 G2 H9 A B C D1 E F3 G2 H9 I J K L M N1 O1 P Q I J K L M N1 O1 P Q A b C D2 E F1 G2 H9 A b C D2 E F1 G2 H9 i J k L2 m N1 O3 P q i J k L2 m N1 O3 P q They take genes for the same Traits but can take different versions. Observe the Example.
  12. 12. Crossing over and Recombination
  13. 13. The main events in Meiosis 2. Random Crossing over between homologous chromosomes 1.Homologous Chromosomes Separate during ANAPHASE I
  14. 14. 1 2 34 5 6
  15. 15. HOMOLOGOUS HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES ALIGN ALONG METAPHASE PLATE PROPHASE I
  16. 16. d) Anaphase I
  17. 17. PROPHASE II
  18. 18. i) Anaphase II
  19. 19. Variability causes in Meiosis 1. Crossing over 3.Separation of sister Chromatides during ANAPHASE II 2.Homologous Chromosomes Separation during ANAPHASE I
  20. 20. A B C D E F G A B C D e F g AA b C D e F g b C D E F G
  21. 21. 1. Crossing over Exchange of Genetic Material between Homologous Chromosomes
  22. 22. 2.Homologous Chromosomes Separation during ANAPHASE I Either or A B A B
  23. 23. A1 A2 A1 A2 A3 A4 A3 A4 ANAPHASE II 3.Separation of sister Chromatides during ANAPHASE II
  24. 24. A B A A B B C C C C REPLICATION S H O M O L O G O U S
  25. 25. C C C C SYNAPSIS
  26. 26. C C C C SYNAPSIS
  27. 27. C C C C SYNAPSIS
  28. 28. CCCCCC
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