A. introduction to forensic medicine
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  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO FORENSIC MEDICINE Dr. Soe Min Min Nyunt M.B,B.S(Mdy) M.Med.Sc (Med.Juris) January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 2. Founding Scientists
    • Mathieu Orfila (1787-1853)
      • Father of toxicology.
      • First to detect poisons in animals.
    • Alphonse Bertillon (1853-1914)
      • Developed the science of anthropometry, the taking of body measurements as a means of distinguishing people. (This was replaced later by fingerprinting).
    • Francis Galton (1822-1911)
      • First to look into fingerprinting.
      • 1892 wrote “Finger Prints” which talked about the science of fingerprinting.
    • Leone Lattes (1887-1954)
      • Developed the technique for determining the blood type of a sample of dried blood.
    • Calvin Goddard (1891-1955)
      • First to refine the science of bullet comparison.
    • Albert Osborn (1858-1946)
      • Authority on authenticating documents.
    • Walter McCrone (1916-2002)
      • Perfected the use of the microscope in investigation.
    • Edmond Locard (1877-1966)
      • Perfected the use of scientific method in today’s labs.
      • Locard’s Excange Principle
    McCrone 7 January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 3. Synonyms:
    • Forensic Medicine (U.K.)
    • Legal Medicine (U.S.A.)
    • Medical Jurisprudence (India)
    • Oya'a&;&maq;ynm/rSKUcif;qdkif&maq;ynm (Myanmar)
    • Forensic medicine = the medicine of forum or law courts (Forum = Roman law court)
    • Legal medicine = the branch of medicine that deals with the law
    • Medical Jurisprudence (Jurisprudence = laws)
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 4. Definition
    • Forensic medicine is a branch of medicine where the principles and knowledge of medicine is used for purposes of the law, both civil and criminal.
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 5. Branches of Forensic Medicine
    • A.     Forensic Pathology
    • This knowledge is used in:
    • (a) Finding the cause of death as a result of trauma
    • (b) Finding of the cause of death in sudden unexpected death.
    • (c) Interpreting the mechanism of injuries and giving medicolegal opinions. e.g., amount of force; position of victim and assailant
    •  
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 6.
    • B.     Clinical Forensic Medicine
    • (a) Medicolegal examination of rape cases
    • (b) Determination of age for medicolegal purposes
    • (c) Assessment of degree of permanent disabilities, following a factory accident of a workman for compensation
    • (d) Psychiatric assessment of a person for: -
    • - insanity in a case of murder
    • - competency as a witness
    • - testamentary capacity in executing a will
    • - validity of consent
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 7.
    • C.    Forensic Toxicology
    • D.    Forensic Thanatology
    • E.    Forensic Psychiatry
    • F.    Forensic Odontology
    • G.    Forensic Anthropology
    • H.    Forensic Entomology
    • I.     Medical Ethics
    • J.     Medical Negligence
    • K.   Forensic Serology
    • L.    Forensic Science
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 8. List The Role of Forensic Medicine
    • 1. To prove a point of law
    • 2. Used as a piece of circumstantial evidence
    • 3. To check the correctness or relevancy of the statement of a witness
    • 4. To help in differentiating Accident, Suicide and Homicide
    • 5. Personal identification of unknown cases
    • 6. To aid law enforcement forces
    • 7. Other related roles of Forensic Medicine.
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 9. D iscuss how forensic medicine can help in a case of murder.
    • 1.      To prove a point of law
    • Oya'qkdonfrSm wkdif;jynftwGuf jynfolhtusdK;twGuf tcsdeftcgtavQmuf a'o tavQmuf vlwkdhu jyKpkoGm;onfh pnf;rsOf;jzpfonf/xkdjyXmef;csufuav;eSifhjidpGef;onfh jypfrSKrsdK;ukd jyKvkyfvQif jypfrSKusL;vGef&m a&mufonf/
    • vlwOD;'gPfjyKí aooGm;onfhwkdif vlowfrSKrajrmufyg/ Oyrm-rlBudK ausmif;q&monf wynfhtm; pmar;&m wynfhu rajzekdifbJ tvGefnHhzsif;ae ojzifh 8½kPm a'goeSifh wynfhtm; ½dkufvkduf&muav;rSm congenital berry's aneurysm and intracranial haemorrhage jzifh aovQif xkdq&mtm; vlowfrSKjzifh zrf;rnfavm/
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 10.
    • Oya'wGiftjypf½Sdaom pdwfeSihf tjypf&SdaomvkyfaqmifrSKwhkd aygif;pyfrSom jypfrSKusL;vGef&m a&mufonf/ rlNudk q&monf wynfhaoaomfvnf; (0g) vkyfaqmifrSK &Sdaomfvnf; tjypf&Sdaompdwfr&Sdí vlowfrSK yk'freSifh rzrf;ekdif/
    • vlowfrSKyk'frwGif tjypf&Sdaom pdwf&SdaBumif; w&m;&Hk;wGif ppfaq;&mü ay:vGifatmif ppfaq; &ygonf/
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 11.
    • vlowfrSK Oya'yk'frwGif aoapvkdaom tBuHeSifh jyKíaovQif (intention to kill ) [lí jyXmef; xm; ygonf/ xkdjyXmef;csufeSifh jidpGef;rS omvWif w&m;cHonf vlowfrSK usL;vGef&m ajrmufonf/ w&m;cGifwGif aoapvkdaom tBuH&Sdovm;[k ar;r&onfhtcg tBuH&SdaBumif; ay:vGifap&ef aq;ynmukd w&m;½Hk;rsm;u tm; ukd; &ygonf/
    • aq;ynmtaejzifh 'Pf&m obm0 ( nature of injury ) ukd Bunfhí ajymjcif;tm;jzifh 'PfjyKaom vufeuftrsdK; tpm; ( nature of weapon ) ukdajymekdifygonf/
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 12.
    • w&m;cGifwGif vlaotavmif;ay:ü aoeyf'Pf&mawGh aBumif; oufaoxGufvQifyif w&m;cHonf aoeyfukdtoHk;jyKaBumif; od&í xkdaoeyf ukdifolwGif aoapvkdaom tBuH&Sdonf[k qHk;jzwfekdifygonf/ iSufBuD;awmif'g;eSifh ckwfí acgif;jywfoGm;onfh 'Pf&mwGif 'g;ukdtoHk;jyKaBumif; od½kkHkrQjzifh aoapvkdaom tBuH&SdaBumif; qHk;jzwfekdifygonf/
    • Site of election vlce¨mukd,faouGif; (choice of vital area) ukda&G;í 'PfjyKaBumif; w&m;cGifwGif q&m0efu oufaoxGufygu w&m;cHrSm aoapvkdaom tBuH½SdaBumif; ay:vGifygonf/
    • Oyrm - 'g;jzifh acgif;ukd ckwfjcif;? aoeyfjzif h0J&iftHk ukd ypfjcif;/
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 13.
    • Number of wounds ('Pf&mta&twGuf)
    • jypfrSKqkdif&m Oya'wGif rdrdtoufukdaomf¤if;? olwyg; toufukdaomf¤if;? rdrd ypönf;ukd aomf4if; ckcHykdifcGifh Oya'&Sdygonf/ tu,fí w&m;cGifwGif q&m0efu xGufqkd&mü aouGif;ukd a&G;íxkd;jcif; r[kwfbJ xkd;rdxkd;&mxkd;jcif;? 'Pf&mta&twGufrSmvnf; wckwnf;om&Sdjcif; ponfwkdhukd q&m0efu xGufqkdí w&m;cHa&Shaeuvnf; tjcm; rsufjrifoufaorsm; taxmuftulukd ,lí w&m;cHrSm rvSGJra&Smifomí rdrdukd,fukd ckcHcGifoHk;í 'g;jzifh wcsufomxkd;jcif; oufaoxlekdifvQif w&m;cHonf vlowfrSK rS{uefkrkcs uif;vGwfrnf jzpfonf/
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 14.
    • Amount of force used
    • · slight force…… nil…………….. in murder
    • · moderate force and considerable force….. 99%........ in murder
    • · great force ……..1%............ in murder
    •  
    • Intention to kill
    • ·  nature of injury
    • · nature of weapon used
    • · site of election--choice of vital area
    • · number of wounds--private defence/vengeful homicide
    • · amount of force
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 15.
    • In Rape cases
    • w&m;cGifü vljydef;rsm; rqHk;jzwfekdifaom Oya' jyXmef;csufrSm umrpyf,SufrSK qkdaompum;jzpfonf/ ¤if; t"dygÜ,frSm a,mufsm; wefqmxdyfonf rdef;rukd,f t0 eSKwfcrf;om;twGif;okdh oGif;0ifrd&HkrQeSifh umrpyf,Suf&m a&mufonf/ ¤if;xkd;oGif;jcif; ^oGwfoGif;jcif;vu©Pm (Physical signs of penetration) &Sd r&Sd q&m0efu Bunfhay;&rnf/
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 16.
    • The finding of spermatozoa in the female vaginal tract is indicative of recent sexual intercourse and this can be determined only by medical examination.
    • Rape---sexual intercourse / penetration / signs of struggle / age 13-14
    • AGE
    • rk'def;rSKrSm yifw&m;cGifü vljydef;rsm; oufaorxlekdifaom jyXmef;csufrSm - rdef;ru tvkdwl onf jzpfap - rwlonfjzpfap xkdrdef;ronf touf (14) eSpfatmuf jzpfvQif? touf (13) eSpf atmuf r[kwfaom rdrdr,m;eSifh umrpyf,SufvQif rk'def;rSK rajrmuf[k qkd&mü touf eSifh ywfoufvmvQif aq;ynmuom tqHk;tjzwf ay;ekdifonf/
    • (signs of struggle-she must struggle to the uttermost and to the last)
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 17.
    • In Criminal abortion (w&m;r0if uav;zsufcsrSK)
    • jyXmef;csufwGif ukd,f0ef&Sdaom rdef;ronf (w&m;cHrdef;r) [kqkd&mü ukd,f0ef &Sd - r&Sd od &ef aq;ynmu taxmuftul ay;&onf/
    • (1) ukd,f0ef&Sd&rnf/ (2) ukd,fxdvufa&muf zsufcsrSK&Sd&rnf/ (3) wu,fyif uav;ysuf us &rnf/ (signs of pregnancy, signs of recent delivery, signs of interference)
    • vSKyf&Sm;aomuav;r[kwfvQif axmif(3)eSpf
    • vSKyf&Sm;aomuav;jzpfvQif axmif(7)eSpf
    • uav;pwifvSKyfcsdef (quickening - 16 - 18 weeks of gestation, primip - 18 weeks, multip - 16weeks)
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 18.
    • In Grievous hurt (Section 320)
    • It is grievous hurt if there is a fracture or dislocation of a bone or tooth. Medical examination will be required for the diagnosis of fracture or dislocation.
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 19.
    • 2. Used as a piece of circumstantial evidence
    • Circumstantial evidence (oG,f0dkufaom ywf0ef;usif oufao)
    • It is not a fact actually in issue but it is relevant to a fact actually in issue.
    • Circumstantial evidence must form an unbroken chain. To be of legal value, medical or forensic knowledge has to be used, for instance, in determining the blood stains on the clothing or on the weapon. In a case where there is no eyewitness, circumstantial evidence becomes the missing link along the chain of events in incriminating the accused.
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 20.
    • Oyrm - (A) u vrf;avQmufvmpOf (B)u (C)tdrfukd "g;&SnfukdifjyD; 0ifoGm;onf ukdawGhonf/ (A)u rouFmí qufavQmufoGm;jyD; &Jpcef;okdh taBumif;Bum;onf/ xkdtwGif; tdrfeD;csif; (D)u nae3;10rdepftcsdefwGif &Hk;&if;qefcwf jzpfoHqlqlnHnH Bum;&onf/ (A)u taBumif;Bum;í &Jom;(E) (F) (G)eSifh twl (C)tdrfokdh qufvm&m nae 3;20em&DwGif(B)ukd vrf;xdyfwGif awGh&m tusÐwGif aoG;rsm;pGef;aeí &Jrsm;u zrf;í &SmazG&m vG,ftdwfxJwGif aoG;pGef;aeaom "g;ukd awGh&í aoG;pGef;tusÐeSifh vufeufwkdhukd "gwkaA'0ef (H) vufxJodkh tyfeSHonf/ (H)u ol"gwfcGJcef; uWrf;usifol ( I ) ukdppfaq;ckdif;&m vlaoG;jzpfaBumif;eSifh Blood Group - AB jzpfaBumif;awGh&Sd&onf/
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 21.
    • (C ) tavmif;ukd q&m0ef ( J) xHoGm;a&muf ppfaq;&m "g;xkd;'Pf&m (5) csuf awGh&aBumif; xGufqkdonf/ xkdhjyif'Pf&m jyif;xefí q&m0efu w&m;½Hk;wGif ½Hk;uefjcif;? xGufajy;ekdifjcif; r&SdaBumif;? trsm;qHk; nD;nLoHomBum;EkdifaBumif; xGufqkdonf/ (A, D, E, F, G, H, I, J ) wkdhonf oG,f0kdufaom ywf0ef;usif oufaorsm;jzpfonf/ tu,fí w&m;cH tusÐay:wGif aoG;rawGh? "g;rSmvnf; vlaoG;rawGhqkdvQif tjcm; ywf0efusifoufaorsm;onf uGif;qufnDaomfvnf; (B) u (C) ukd wu,fowf aBumif; rnfolrQ rjrif&í xkdae&mwGif uGif;qufjywfaeonf / vkdtyfaom uGif;qufukd (H) eSifh ( I) uay;onf/
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 22.
    • Circumstantial evidence oufaoxl&mwGif ta&;BuD;aom tcsufrSm vkdtyfaom uGif;qufrsm; tm;vHk; jidwG,fae&rnf/ wae&mwGif uGif;qufjywfaevQif oHo, tusdK; ( benefit of doubt ) ukdw&m;cHtm; cHpm;cGifhay;&rnf/ Oya'ynm&SifBuD; wcsdKhu wkduf&kduf oufaoonf taumif;qHk;[kqkdonf/ tcsdKhuuGif;qufrsm; tm;vHk; &SdjyD; wckeSifhwck qufoG,faeygvQif oG,f0kdufaom ywf0ef;usifoufaoonf taumif;qHk; [kqkdBuonf/ aiGrsm;w&m;ekdifqkdwm &Sdygonf/ vlowfrSKwGif wkduf&kduf oufao wOD;xJom &Sdygu xkdvltm; aiGay;í jrifwmukd rjrifaBumif; ajymqkdckdif;vQif &ygonf/
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 23.
    • okdhaomf A, D, E, F, G, H, I & J oufao tm;vHk;ukd w&m;cHu rnfolrnf0g jzpfaeaBumif; odcsifrS odrnf A rS pí G txd odonfhwkdif H eSifh I wkhdygvmrnfudk odekdif&ef cJ&if;onf/ xkdhaBumifh A rSpí G txd aiGay;ekdifaomfvnf; vlrsm; aeí xkdtxJrS oDvorm"d&Sdol wOD;wavygvmrnf/ Oyrm - E, F eSifh G &Jom; ( 3)OD; xJu wOD;u vbfpm;jcif;ukd vHk;0vufrcHbJ usef (2) OD; vufcH onfukdvnf; txufokdh wkdifwef;onfh tajctae &Sdvmekdifonf/ H eSifh I ukdvnf; w&m;cHu aiGay;&rSef; rodí aemufqHk; w&m;&Hk;wGif uGif;qufjid aewwfygonf/ xkdhaBumifh ywf0ef;usif oufaoxl&mwGif aiGrsm;w&m;ekdif r&Sdyg/
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 24.
    • wkduf&kduf oufaorSmvnf; om"u&Sdygonf/ wkduf&kduf oufao ajymorQukdvnf; rrSef[k ,lq&ef cJ&if;ygonf/ Oyrm-awmvkduform; (3) OD;onf awmodkh 0ifonfhtcg jcHKuG,frS wd&dpämefwaumif ckefxGufajy;oGm;aBumif; (3) OD; pvHk; jrifvkdufBuaomfvnf; vefhjzefhjyD; wOD;uusm;BuD;? aemufwOD;u awm0uf? aemufwOD;u orif[k ajymojzifh? ¤if;wkdhukdac:í ajc&moGm;Bunfh&m uWJ&kdif; ajc&mawG&onfh tjyif ywf0ef;usif opfyifrsm; rSmvnf; uWJ&kdif; pm;wwfaom opfyifrsm; awGh&onf/ xkdhaBumifh vlwkdhonf aoG;vefhaepOf aoG;&l;aoG;wef;jzifh jrifcsif&mukd jrif? trSefukd jrifcsifrS jrifekdifonf/ xkdhaBumifh vlowfrSKrsm;wGif aoG;vefhaecsdefjzpfí wkduf&kduf oufao xGufqkdcsufrSm rSefcsifrS rSefrnfjzpfonf/
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 25.
    • 3.      To check the correctness or relevancy of the statement of a witness
    •  
    • In law courts, there is always conflicting statements from the witness of opposing parties. The opinion of the medical officer will be required by the law courts with regards to: -
    • (a) Reconstruction of a road traffic accident
    • An imprint abrasion will indicate the direction of the car hitting a pedestrian
    • (b) Time of infliction of a wound
    • Changes in colour and appearance in a bruise following an injury will indicate when the blow was inflicted
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 26.
    • (c) Signs of struggle in a case of alleged rape
    • Scratches, bruises and other injuries on the face, breasts, back and inner side of the thigh of a woman will support the statement that the sexual act was done against her will.
    • (d) The kind of weapon used
    • A lacerated wound is inflicted by a blunt weapon, while an incised wound is inflicted by a sharp edged weapon.
    • (e) The position of victim and assailant
    • Wounds on the back showed that the victim was attacked from behind and a defence wound will indicate that the victim was aware of an attack.
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 27.
    • 4.      To help in differentiating Accident, Suicide and Homicide
    •  
    • In cases of deaths where there is no eye witness, as in a dead body found in a field, or in a room, or on a railway track, or recovered from the river, detailed examination of a body and the scene of crime is required in differentiating between accident, suicide and homicide.
    • The opinion of the medical officer will be very helpful for the investigating police officer and it may serve as a starting point for police investigation.
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 28.
    • A dead body, with multiple crushed injuries, found on the railway track, will be first assumed to be an accident. On post-mortem examination, fatal stab wounds may be found indicating a homicide.
    • Persons killed are sometimes thrown into the river to conceal the crime. Detailed post-mortem examination will reveal the actual cause of death. The presence of a classical suicidal cutthroat wound indicates death by suicide.
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 29.
    • 5.      Personal identification of unknown cases
    •  
    • Personal identification is difficult in cases of: -
    • Skeletal remains – An old fracture or a deformity will be helpful in identifying the body.
    • Decomposed bodies – A scar, a tattoo mark on an amputated stump will be of considerable help in identifying the body.
    • Dismembered body – where the murderer wants to conceal the identity and cause of death of the victim.
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 30.
    • Severely burnt body – where dental data is very helpful in identification.
    • Victims of mass disaster – in air-crash, earthquake, burn conflagration
    • In personal identification of an unknown dead body, the knowledge of anatomy odontology, pathology, medicine, surgery, radiology, fingerprint (dactylography) anthropology, become very useful.
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 31.
    • 6.      To aid law enforcement forces
    • e.g., decomposition changes can be mistaken for assault and murder.
    • In sudden and unexplained deaths, a post-mortem examination may find out the medical cause of death and rule out any foul play.
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 32.
    • 7.      Other related roles of Forensic Medicine
    • Assessment of injuries for Third party insurance purpose, following an accident while using a motorised vehicle
    • Notification of industrial diseases accidents such as lead poisoning, arsenic poisoning, aniline poisoning, carbon tetra-chloride poisoning, and electrocutions for preventive measures.
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 33. Departmental Objectives
    • At the end of the course of instruction, the learner should be able to: -
    •  
    • KNOWLEDGE
    • 1.      Have the knowledge of common medicolegal cases in Myanmar, and the principles of management of such cases
    • 2.      Correlate between the clinical manifestations and the autopsy findings.
    •  
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 34.
    • SKILL
    • 1. Serve as a competent medical witness in the law courts.
    • ATTITUDE
    • 1.      Have the knowledge and attitude to abide by the moral and legal codes of the ethical medical practice.
    • 2.      Have the awareness that it is one of the duties of a medical officer to assist law enforcement agencies and thereby help in the management of medicolegal problems of the community.
    • 3.      Be aware of the importance of consultation / referral to Specialist whenever necessary.
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 35. Specific Instructional Objectives
    • ROLE OF FORENSIC MEDICINE
      • * Define Forensic Medicine.
      • * State the various branches of Forensic Medicine.
      • * Describe the role of Forensic Medicine in criminal investigation and in the law
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 36. Some careers in… Scene of Crime Officer/ Crime Scene Investigator Fingerprint Examiner State Pathologist/ Forensic Pathologist/Medical Examiner Forensic Toxicologist Forensic Pathology Technician Medical Transcriber Forensic Document Examiner Forensic Anthropologist January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 37. Some careers in… Scene of Crime Officer/ Crime Scene Investigator Fingerprint Examiner State Pathologist/ Forensic Pathologist/Medical Examiner Forensic Toxicologist Forensic Pathology Technician Medical Transcriber Forensic Document Examiner Forensic Anthropologist January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 38. SCENE OF CRIME OFFICER
    • COLLECT EVIDENCE
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 39. SCENE OF CRIME OFFICER
    • PRESERVE EVIDENCE
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 40. SCENE OF CRIME OFFICER
    • TRANSPORT EVIDENCE
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 41. SCENE OF CRIME OFFICER
    • MAINTAIN CHAIN OF CUSTODY
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 42. SCENE OF CRIME OFFICER
    • HANDLE THE BODY
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 43. SCENE OF CRIME OFFICER
    • COLLECT PERSONAL BELONGINGS
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 44. SCENE OF CRIME OFFICER
    • IDENTIFY THE VICTIM
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 45. SCENE OF CRIME OFFICER
    • IDENTIFY THE VICTIM
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 46. Some careers in… Scene of Crime Officer/ Crime Scene Investigator Fingerprint Examiner State Pathologist/ Forensic Pathologist/Medical Examiner Forensic Toxicologist Forensic Pathology Technician Medical Transcriber Forensic Document Examiner Forensic Anthropologist January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 47. FINGERPRINT EXAMINER
    • EXPOSE FINGERPRINTS
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 48. FINGERPRINT EXAMINER
    • LIFT FINGERPRINTS
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 49. Some careers in… Scene of Crime Officer/ Crime Scene Investigator Fingerprint Examiner State Pathologist/ Forensic Pathologist/Medical Examiner Forensic Toxicologist Forensic Pathology Technician Medical Transcriber Forensic Document Examiner Forensic Anthropologist January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 50. FORENSIC PATHOLOGIST
    • PERFORM AUTOPSIES ON BODIES
    “ click” title to view video January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 51. FORENSIC PATHOLOGIST
    • INFORM THE PUBLIC
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 52. FORENSIC PATHOLOGIST
    • TESTIFY IN COURT
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 53. Some careers in… Scene of Crime Officer/ Crime Scene Investigator Fingerprint Examiner State Pathologist/ Forensic Pathologist/Medical Examiner Forensic Toxicologist Forensic Pathology Technician Medical Transcriber Forensic Document Examiner Forensic Anthropologist January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 54. FORENSIC TOXICOLOGIST
    • STUDY CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 55. FORENSIC TOXICOLOGIST
    • CHEMICAL TESTING
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 56. FORENSIC TOXICOLOGIST
    • SAMPLE COLLECTION AND TESTING
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 57. Some careers in… Scene of Crime Officer/ Crime Scene Investigator Fingerprint Examiner State Pathologist/ Forensic Pathologist/Medical Examiner Forensic Toxicologist Forensic Pathology Technician Medical Transcriber Forensic Document Examiner Forensic Anthropologist January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 58. FORENSIC PATHOLOGY TECHNICIAN
    • ASSIST THE FORENSIC PATHOLOGIST
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 59. FORENSIC PATHOLOGY TECHNICIAN
    • XRAY BODIES
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 60. Some careers in… Scene of Crime Officer/ Crime Scene Investigator Fingerprint Examiner State Pathologist/ Forensic Pathologist/Medical Examiner Forensic Toxicologist Forensic Pathology Technician Medical Transcriber Forensic Document Examiner Forensic Anthropologist January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 61. MEDICAL TRANSCRIBER
    • TRANSCRIBE FORENSIC INFORMATION
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 62. Some careers in… Scene of Crime Officer/ Crime Scene Investigator Fingerprint Examiner State Pathologist/ Forensic Pathologist/Medical Examiner Forensic Toxicologist Forensic Pathology Technician Medical Transcriber Forensic Document Examiner Forensic Anthropologist January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 63. FORENSIC DOCUMENT EXAMINER
    • EXAMINE PRINT MATERIAL
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 64. FORENSIC DOCUMENT EXAMINER
    • ANALYSE HANDWRITING
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 65. Some careers in… Scene of Crime Officer/ Crime Scene Investigator Fingerprint Examiner State Pathologist/ Forensic Pathologist/Medical Examiner Forensic Toxicologist Forensic Pathology Technician Medical Transcriber Forensic Document Examiner Forensic Anthropologist January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 66. FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGIST
    • ESTIMATE AGE, GENDER, HEIGHT, RACE
    “ click” title to view video January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 67. FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGIST
    • SUGGEST CAUSE OF INJURY
    January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 68. January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture
  • 69. Thank you January 10, 2012 dr.smmn's lecture