Eb Intro To Biotechnology 49


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Eb Intro To Biotechnology 49

  1. 1. Introduction to Biotechnology
  2. 2. Biotechnology <ul><li>Biotechnology helps to meet our basic needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Food, clothing, shelter, health and safety </li></ul>
  3. 3. Biotechnology <ul><li>Improvements by using science </li></ul><ul><li>Science helps in production plants, animals and other organisms </li></ul>
  4. 4. Biotechnology <ul><li>Also used in maintaining a good environment that promotes our well being </li></ul>
  5. 5. Biotechnology <ul><li>Using scientific processes to get new organisms or new products from organisms. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Biotechnology <ul><li>Large area </li></ul><ul><li>Includes many approaches and methods in science and technology </li></ul>
  7. 7. Office of Tech Assessment Definition <ul><li>Any technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals…. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cont. <ul><li>Or to develop microorganisms for specific uses. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Agricultural View <ul><li>All of the applied science based operations in producing food, fiber, shelter, and related products </li></ul>
  10. 10. Agricultural View <ul><li>Milk production </li></ul><ul><li>New horticultural and ornamental plants </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife, aquaculture, natural resources and environmental management </li></ul>
  11. 11. Multidisciplinary <ul><li>Involves many disciplines or branches of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Includes all areas of Life Sciences </li></ul>
  12. 12. Organismic Biotech <ul><li>Working with complete, intact organisms or their cells </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms are not genetically changed with artificial means </li></ul>
  13. 13. Organismic Biotech <ul><li>Help the organism live better or be more productive </li></ul><ul><li>Goal – improve organisms and the conditions in which they grow </li></ul>
  14. 14. Organismic Biotech <ul><li>Study and use natural genetic variations </li></ul><ul><li>Cloning is an example of organismic biotech </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cloning <ul><li>Process of producing a new organism from cells or tissues of existing organism. </li></ul><ul><li>1997 cloned sheep – “Dolly” in Edinburgh Scotland </li></ul>
  16. 16. Molecular Biotech <ul><li>Changing the genetic make-up of an organism </li></ul><ul><li>Altering the structure and parts of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Complex! </li></ul>
  17. 17. Molecular Biotech <ul><li>Uses genetic engineering, molecular mapping and similar processes </li></ul>
  18. 18. Genetic Engineering <ul><li>Changing the genetic information in a cell </li></ul><ul><li>Specific trait of one organism may be isolated,cut, and moved into the cell of another organism </li></ul>
  19. 19. Transgenic <ul><li>Results of Gen. Eng. Are said to be “transgenic” </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic material in an organism has been altered </li></ul>
  20. 20. Biotech examples <ul><li>Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Forestry </li></ul><ul><li>Food and beverage processing </li></ul>
  21. 21. Medicine <ul><li>Some new developments delve into the hereditary material of humans known as gene therapy </li></ul>
  22. 22. Medicine <ul><li>Therapeutant - product used to maintain health or prevent disease </li></ul><ul><li>Biopharmaceuticals – drug or vaccine developed through biotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>Called designer drugs </li></ul>
  23. 23. Medicine <ul><li>Biopharming – production of pharmaceuticals in cultured organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of the agriculture and pharmaceutical industries </li></ul>
  24. 24. Medicine <ul><li>Certain blood – derived products needed in human medicine can be produced in the milk of goats </li></ul>
  25. 25. Environment <ul><li>Any biotechnological process that may promote a good environment </li></ul><ul><li>Organisms developed during the gulf war to “eat” oil </li></ul><ul><li>Organism used in gold mining to “eat” contaminants </li></ul>
  26. 26. Environmental <ul><li>Problems naturally solved by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi break down contaminant into a form less harmful or not harmful </li></ul>
  27. 27. Ag and Forestry <ul><li>Plant biotech </li></ul><ul><li>Animal biotech </li></ul>
  28. 28. Plant biotech <ul><li>Improve plants and the products produced from them </li></ul><ul><li>Insect and disease resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Engineered to have desired characteristics </li></ul>
  29. 29. Plant biotech <ul><li>Corn plant produced with high levels of the amino acid Lysine </li></ul>
  30. 30. Animal Biotech <ul><li>Improve animals or the products they produce </li></ul><ul><li>Animals may be used to produce products that promote human health </li></ul>
  31. 31. Animal Biotech <ul><li>Increase productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Pigs engineered to produce human hemoglobin </li></ul>
  32. 32. Food and Beverages <ul><li>Use of technology in producing and processing </li></ul><ul><li>Some biotech principles have been employed for hundreds of years </li></ul><ul><li>Yeast in baking bread </li></ul>
  33. 33. Food and Bev. <ul><li>Genetically altered crops </li></ul><ul><li>rBGH milk </li></ul>
  34. 34. Biotechnology <ul><li>Helps meet human needs </li></ul><ul><li>Food, clothing and shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Plants and animals are used in manufacturing food, clothing and materials for shelter </li></ul>
  35. 35. Biotechnology <ul><li>Used to make products more useful or desirable </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: conversion of milk into cheese or yogurt </li></ul>
  36. 36. Efficiency <ul><li>Must keep the cost of improving products as low as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Biotech results in greater efficiency </li></ul>
  37. 37. Efficiency <ul><li>Inoculating legume seeds with bacteria that allow the plant to pull nitrogen out of the air and put it into the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Saves the producer the cost of applying N fertilizer </li></ul>
  38. 38. Efficiency <ul><li>Results in trees that grow faster and produce wood that is more desirable </li></ul>
  39. 39. Greater Production <ul><li>Increases yields </li></ul><ul><li>bST use in cows to produce more milk </li></ul><ul><li>Higher crop yields from drought, disease & insect resistant crops </li></ul>
  40. 40. Health Promoting Foods <ul><li>Food with unique traits </li></ul><ul><li>Some contain therapeutants </li></ul><ul><li>Some designed with nutrient enrichment </li></ul>
  41. 41. Safety <ul><li>Consumers want foods to provide needed nutrients and in some cases, enhanced foods </li></ul><ul><li>Do not want side effects from those enhanced foods </li></ul>
  42. 42. Easy preparation <ul><li>Flavr-Savr Tomato </li></ul><ul><li>Reached the market in early 1990’s </li></ul><ul><li>Engineered to have a longer shelf life </li></ul>
  43. 43. Flavr-Savr <ul><li>No soft spots </li></ul><ul><li>No rotten spots </li></ul><ul><li>Tomato resists spoilage </li></ul>
  44. 44. Synthetic biology <ul><li>Creating lifelike characteristics through the use of chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Based on creating structures similar to those found in living organisms </li></ul>
  45. 45. Synthetic Biology <ul><li>Need for synthetic cells lead to the development of the vesicle </li></ul><ul><li>Vesicle – tiny rounded structure with cell like traits </li></ul>
  46. 46. Vesicle <ul><li>Tiny structures similar to soap bubbles were created to serve as the cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Visible only with powerful microscope </li></ul>
  47. 47. Vesicle <ul><li>Once the cell membrane has been successfully developed, development of the materials with the cell is initiated. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Synthetic biology <ul><li>Is important because it brings science closer to creating life in the lab </li></ul><ul><li>Cells and tissues may be developed to treat human injury and disease </li></ul>