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For the South Florida GardenerKim Gabel, Environmental Horticulture AgentUF/IFAS/Monroe County Extension
Site Selection   2-3• Location• Sunshine• Root competition• Soil
Planning the Garden    4-9• Vegetable selection: Startwith “Florida Garden Guide”http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/vh021• Paper Pla...
Succession Planting         10Continuous supply throughout theseason:   Two or more crops in   succession - After one crop...
Companion Planting    10-12Improves growth & productivityRepels insects & other pestsIncreases NitrogenImproves Plant Nutr...
Companion Planting
Garden Tools   13
Climatic and Weather Effects   14-17
Soil Test   http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss156
Soil pH              19http://icsde.ifas.ufl.edu/Accordent/Extension/MGSpecialistUpdate9%2D16%                            ...
Soil compaction
Soil-less Media• Compost• Potting soil• Combinations of  ingredients:  vermiculite, peat moss,  sand, bark, other
Soil-less Media               37Sample Mixture• Sand - 1 bushel “Builder’s Sand” (8 gal)• Organic matter (peat, compost) –...
Fertilizing the    Garden          Plant Nutrients         22Macro-nutrients       Micro-nutrients    Primary             ...
Plant Hunger Signs                  23                       http://hort.ufl.edu/nutdef/• (N) Yellow older leaves and stun...
Fertilizing the   Garden                 Inorganic                         Fertilizers       24-25 Complete (N-P-K) Incomp...
Fertilizing the   Garden                             Fertilizing Apply as needed, or monthly intervals, broadcast around p...
Fertilizing theGarden              Organic Fertilizers                     26-29                           http://edis.ifa...
Organic MatterConditions soilImproves water holding capacityImproves nutrient holding capacitySupplies nutrients – slow re...
Organic Matter                 Animal                 Manures   26-27                   Kinds & Composition               ...
Organic Matter                 Animal Manure Composition         27   Kind       % Water %N            %P      %K   Bull  ...
Composting is the controlled decomposition of organic      materials.Compost is partially decomposed organic matter.Humus ...
To compost rapidly, you must "think like a microbe."                 What do microbes need?   * Food: Greens       &   Bro...
Anything that was once a plant.       High Carbon               High Nitrogen         “Brown”                    “Green”  ...
Three classes of bacteria will go to work for you in              an aerobic (well aerated) pile:Thermophilesbacteria that...
In later (cooler) stages, other organisms will        assist with pile decompositionActinomycetesFungiSowbugsMillipedesCen...
Cold/ Slow/ Passive CompostingSheet CompostingTop-Dressing with organic material on the soil surfaceTrench CompostingCompo...
Hot / Fast / Active Composting   Fastest rate of composting. Kills weed seeds,   pests, and plant pathogens in the process...
Sandwich Method  Layer compost materials using a balance of Green and                       Brown materials. * Alternate 3...
Mix-It! MethodMix the Green and Brown materials before adding themto the compost system  * Add the mixture in 4"    layers...
After building your compost pile,                   manage it by•Monitoring temperature, moisture  & odor•Mixing and Turni...
* Soil Amendment            (Use only finished)        To increase the organic matter in the soil.        Work in 1-3” of ...
Vermiculture
Vermicompost TeaSUPPRESSING PLANT PARASITICNEMATODES AND ARTHROPOD PESTS WITHVERMICOMPOST TEASVERMICOMPOST TEA PRODUCTION ...
Mulches       47-49Organic Mulches           In-Organic MulchesHay/Pine straw            Poly-plasticLeaves               ...
Weed Control                    47-49 Cultivation Hand-pulling Mulching Do not compost perennialsor weeds “in-seed” Keep w...
Gardening options for south               Florida                 30-33http://solutionsforyourlife.ufl.edu/hot_topics/lawn...
Gardening options for south FloridaContainers• Pots and cans• Buckets and  baskets• Styrofoam ice  chests• Plastic bags• B...
Hydroponic                                         gardeninghttp://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/HS/HS18400.pdf
Organic Gardening                               CompostingNo synthetic chemicals                               Mulching(pe...
Raised     BedsConstruction  4-5 feet wide  5-8 feet long or longer  6-12 inch high  24 inch high for wheelchairs  Materia...
Site Preparation       Raised Beds Clear debris & plants Outline area for raised beds Place newspaper, cardboard, etcover ...
Don’t step on your soil!                  transfers                  diseases                  transfers                  ...
Seeds orTransplants?
Seeding the Garden        38-41Advantages Can plant best varieties Some veggies don’t transplant
Transplantability      42-45http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/VH021
Seed Longevity
Seed Storage   413-15 yearsCool: 35-50° FDry: 50-70% RHSeed moisture low: 10-14%RefrigeratorAbsorbent material
Seeding Rules of Thumb          40               Plant 2 seeds/hole               Thin if needed               Plant seed ...
Thinning Plants                 46  Why thin?  Thin when seedlings are small  Seedlings may be used for:     Transplanting...
Starting With Transplants42-44Advantages Early start, earlier harvest  Avoid bad weather  Choice of plants  Instant succes...
Setting Plants4-6 weeks oldDo not disturb rootsSet in moist soilWater around rootsSet at proper depthStarter solution help...
Other Plant PartsCutting - sweet potatoTubers – potatoBulbs – onionsEntire fruit – chayoteClove – garlicStem - cassava
Caring for the Garden
Soil Moisture and Plant Growth
Watering the Garden   50-51No water - no gardenHand-held cans or hoseOverhead sprinklersDrip systemsSoaker hoses
Irrigation ConsiderationsWater early in dayYoung plants need 1” water per week -- apply water frequentlyMature plants need...
Supporting Tall Plants                     49-50  Staking  Trellising  On Fence  Cages  Plant-to-plant
For information onspecific plants and other University ofFlorida Extension publicationsHttp://edis.ifas.ufl.eduHttp://solu...
Courtesy of:   Jim Stephens Vegetable Gardening Specialist Sydney Park Brown Extension Horticulture Agent, Mary Lamberts C...
Vegetable Gardening for the South Florida Gardener - Monroe County, University of Florida
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Vegetable Gardening for the South Florida Gardener - Monroe County, University of Florida

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Transcript of "Vegetable Gardening for the South Florida Gardener - Monroe County, University of Florida"

  1. 1. For the South Florida GardenerKim Gabel, Environmental Horticulture AgentUF/IFAS/Monroe County Extension
  2. 2. Site Selection 2-3• Location• Sunshine• Root competition• Soil
  3. 3. Planning the Garden 4-9• Vegetable selection: Startwith “Florida Garden Guide”http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/vh021• Paper PlansSuccession Planting• Companion Planting
  4. 4. Succession Planting 10Continuous supply throughout theseason: Two or more crops in succession - After one crop is harvested, another is planted in the same space. The length of the growing season, climate, and crop selection are key factors. For example, a cool season spring crop could be followed by a heat-loving summer crop. Same crop, successive plantings – continuous harvest Same crops, different maturity dates - Several varieties are selected, with different maturity dates: early, main season, late. Planted at the same time, the varieties mature one after the other over the season.
  5. 5. Companion Planting 10-12Improves growth & productivityRepels insects & other pestsIncreases NitrogenImproves Plant NutritionEnhances Root PenetrationImproves Plant EnvironmentEnhances PollinationAssists germinationMaximizes spaceProvides climbing supportIncreases Aesthetic value
  6. 6. Companion Planting
  7. 7. Garden Tools 13
  8. 8. Climatic and Weather Effects 14-17
  9. 9. Soil Test http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss156
  10. 10. Soil pH 19http://icsde.ifas.ufl.edu/Accordent/Extension/MGSpecialistUpdate9%2D16% 2D10/
  11. 11. Soil compaction
  12. 12. Soil-less Media• Compost• Potting soil• Combinations of ingredients: vermiculite, peat moss, sand, bark, other
  13. 13. Soil-less Media 37Sample Mixture• Sand - 1 bushel “Builder’s Sand” (8 gal)• Organic matter (peat, compost) – 1 bushel• 1.25 cups dolomite lime• 1 cup 8-8-8 fertilizer with micro-nutrients
  14. 14. Fertilizing the Garden Plant Nutrients 22Macro-nutrients Micro-nutrients Primary B (boron) N (nitrogen) Cl (chlorine) P (phosphorus) Cu (copper) K (potassium) Fe (iron) Mn (manganese) Secondary Mo (molybdenum) Ca ( calcium) Zn (zinc) Mg (magnesium) S (sulfur)
  15. 15. Plant Hunger Signs 23 http://hort.ufl.edu/nutdef/• (N) Yellow older leaves and stunting.• (Ca) Blossom end rot; die-back at tips. Not a problem when tomatoes are grown in the ground.
  16. 16. Fertilizing the Garden Inorganic Fertilizers 24-25 Complete (N-P-K) Incomplete (Ex. Potassium sulfate) Ratio (8-8-8, 8-2-12) Tag shows what’s in the bag and sources May also contain secondary and micros Use slow-release and/or organic Use water soluble if needed
  17. 17. Fertilizing the Garden Fertilizing Apply as needed, or monthly intervals, broadcast around plantsover root zone. Apply per 100 square feet - 1# (6-6-6) or 1/3 # (15-0-15) Less often if organic or slow-release Main benefit is for nitrogen supply, Liquid fertilizers may be usedas well How will this effect the soil biology?http://www.soilfoodweb.com/03_about_us/approach_pgs/a_02_sfw_dgrm_lrg.html
  18. 18. Fertilizing theGarden Organic Fertilizers 26-29 http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/MG323 •Animal derived products: manures & composted products •Other Animal based products •Green manures •Cover crops
  19. 19. Organic MatterConditions soilImproves water holding capacityImproves nutrient holding capacitySupplies nutrients – slow releaseBuffers soilIncreases soil “life”
  20. 20. Organic Matter Animal Manures 26-27 Kinds & Composition Condition Application
  21. 21. Organic Matter Animal Manure Composition 27 Kind % Water %N %P %K Bull 86 .55 .15 .50 Hen 73 1.10 .90 .50 Horse 80 .65 .25 .50 Sheep 68 1.00 .75 .40 Turkey 74 1.30 .70 .50
  22. 22. Composting is the controlled decomposition of organic materials.Compost is partially decomposed organic matter.Humus is completely decomposed organic matter.Mulch is organic or inorganic materials spread on the soil surface.
  23. 23. To compost rapidly, you must "think like a microbe." What do microbes need? * Food: Greens & Browns * Air (02) * Moisturehttp://www.richmond.ca/__shared/assets/compost_26754.jpg
  24. 24. Anything that was once a plant. High Carbon High Nitrogen “Brown” “Green” Twigs Manure Leaves Kitchen scraps Sawdust Grass clippings Wood chips Nitrogen fertilizers Carbon to Nitrogen RatioThe ideal ratio of Carbon to Nitrogen is 30 to 1 (30:1)
  25. 25. Three classes of bacteria will go to work for you in an aerobic (well aerated) pile:Thermophilesbacteria that thrive attemperatures between 105-140°FMesophilesbacteria that thrive attemperatures between 70-90°FPsychrophilesbacteria that flourish at lowtemperatures down to 0°F Psychrophiles
  26. 26. In later (cooler) stages, other organisms will assist with pile decompositionActinomycetesFungiSowbugsMillipedesCentipedesSpidersEarthworms
  27. 27. Cold/ Slow/ Passive CompostingSheet CompostingTop-Dressing with organic material on the soil surfaceTrench CompostingComposting directly IN the soilCold Bin CompostingFill your compost bin halfway with browns and burykitchen scrapsHeap CompostingA collection of compostable materials
  28. 28. Hot / Fast / Active Composting Fastest rate of composting. Kills weed seeds, pests, and plant pathogens in the process. Requires several elements to succeed:* Minimum size - 3’ x 3’ x 3’ (1 cubic yard)* Blend of greens and browns (~ 30:1 C/N Ratio)* Proper moisture content* Frequent turning to provide air* Particle size of less than 2"-3"
  29. 29. Sandwich Method Layer compost materials using a balance of Green and Brown materials. * Alternate 3-4" layers of Green (high nitrogen) and Brown (high carbon) materials. * Water each layer as you build it so material is moist not wet, like a wrung sponge.* End with a Brown layer ontop.
  30. 30. Mix-It! MethodMix the Green and Brown materials before adding themto the compost system * Add the mixture in 4" layers. * Water each layer. * Speeds up the composting process
  31. 31. After building your compost pile, manage it by•Monitoring temperature, moisture & odor•Mixing and Turning•Finishing/Curing•Screening
  32. 32. * Soil Amendment (Use only finished) To increase the organic matter in the soil. Work in 1-3” of compost. * Mulch (Use finished or unfinished) Apply 3-4 inches thick when possible. * Potting Mix (Use only finished) Blend with sand, perlite, vermiculite, etc. * Compost Tea (Use finished or unfinished)Fill burlap bag with compost and place in barrelof water. Use “tea” to water plants.
  33. 33. Vermiculture
  34. 34. Vermicompost TeaSUPPRESSING PLANT PARASITICNEMATODES AND ARTHROPOD PESTS WITHVERMICOMPOST TEASVERMICOMPOST TEA PRODUCTION ANDPLANT GROWTH IMPACTS
  35. 35. Mulches 47-49Organic Mulches In-Organic MulchesHay/Pine straw Poly-plasticLeaves NewspaperBark/Wood chips CardboardYard waste CarpetSawdust
  36. 36. Weed Control 47-49 Cultivation Hand-pulling Mulching Do not compost perennialsor weeds “in-seed” Keep weeds out in off-season
  37. 37. Gardening options for south Florida 30-33http://solutionsforyourlife.ufl.edu/hot_topics/lawn_and_garden/veggie_gardening.html# • Container gardening • Hydroponics (Water culture) • Organic gardening • Raised bed
  38. 38. Gardening options for south FloridaContainers• Pots and cans• Buckets and baskets• Styrofoam ice chests• Plastic bags• Barrels and drums• Imaginative containershttp://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/VH032
  39. 39. Hydroponic gardeninghttp://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/HS/HS18400.pdf
  40. 40. Organic Gardening CompostingNo synthetic chemicals Mulching(pesticides and fertilizers) Animal manuresSoil building: Crop rotation composting Least-toxic pesticides mulching Natural predators Resistant varieties
  41. 41. Raised BedsConstruction 4-5 feet wide 5-8 feet long or longer 6-12 inch high 24 inch high for wheelchairs Materials variable Lumber: non-treated wood, cinder blocks, or cedar to resist decay
  42. 42. Site Preparation Raised Beds Clear debris & plants Outline area for raised beds Place newspaper, cardboard, etcover area Place raised bed walls Fill with compost or potting soil Mulch between beds
  43. 43. Don’t step on your soil! transfers diseases transfers nematodes compacts soil
  44. 44. Seeds orTransplants?
  45. 45. Seeding the Garden 38-41Advantages Can plant best varieties Some veggies don’t transplant
  46. 46. Transplantability 42-45http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/VH021
  47. 47. Seed Longevity
  48. 48. Seed Storage 413-15 yearsCool: 35-50° FDry: 50-70% RHSeed moisture low: 10-14%RefrigeratorAbsorbent material
  49. 49. Seeding Rules of Thumb 40 Plant 2 seeds/hole Thin if needed Plant seed no deeper than 2x diameter Press tiny seeds into soil Keep seed bed moist (cover with burlap
  50. 50. Thinning Plants 46 Why thin? Thin when seedlings are small Seedlings may be used for: Transplanting Greens and salad Leave best plants even if spacing is off Do not disturb roots
  51. 51. Starting With Transplants42-44Advantages Early start, earlier harvest Avoid bad weather Choice of plants Instant success Ideal seed germination Required for some: Sweet potato andStrawberry
  52. 52. Setting Plants4-6 weeks oldDo not disturb rootsSet in moist soilWater around rootsSet at proper depthStarter solution helpful
  53. 53. Other Plant PartsCutting - sweet potatoTubers – potatoBulbs – onionsEntire fruit – chayoteClove – garlicStem - cassava
  54. 54. Caring for the Garden
  55. 55. Soil Moisture and Plant Growth
  56. 56. Watering the Garden 50-51No water - no gardenHand-held cans or hoseOverhead sprinklersDrip systemsSoaker hoses
  57. 57. Irrigation ConsiderationsWater early in dayYoung plants need 1” water per week -- apply water frequentlyMature plants need 2” water per week - apply infrequently
  58. 58. Supporting Tall Plants 49-50 Staking Trellising On Fence Cages Plant-to-plant
  59. 59. For information onspecific plants and other University ofFlorida Extension publicationsHttp://edis.ifas.ufl.eduHttp://solutionsforyourlife.ufl.edu/
  60. 60. Courtesy of: Jim Stephens Vegetable Gardening Specialist Sydney Park Brown Extension Horticulture Agent, Mary Lamberts Commercial Vegetable Crop Agent, George Fitzpatrick Professor of Horticulture Adrian Hunsberger, Miami-Dade Extension AgentHillsborough County Extension Composting Program
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