Tough, Local Native Trees for Your School Yard - Australia
Healthy Habitat for Schools Fact Sheet 1Tough, local native trees for your school yard Common Names Species Name Beefwood Grevillea striata Black bean Castanospermum australe Blackcurrant bush Antidesma parvifolium Bombax, red silk cotton tree Bombax ceiba Bottlebrush species Callistemon species Broad leaved paperbark Melaleuca viridiflora Burdekin plum Pleiogynium timorense Cocky apple Planchonia careya Golden grevillea Grevillea pteridifolia Ironbark Eucalyptus crebra Kapok Cochlospermum gillivraei Moreton Bay ash Corymbia tessellaris Native bauhinia Lysiphyllum hookeri Native olive Chionanthus ramiflora Northern swamp mahogany Lophostemon grandiflorus Peanut tree Sterculia quadrifida Pongamia Milletia pinnata
Common Names Species NamePrickly pine Bursaria incanaQuinine bush Petalostigma pubescensRed coondoo Mimusops elengiRusty pittosporum Pittosporum ferrugineumScaly ash Ganophyllum falcatumSilver-leaved wattle Acacia holosericeaSoap tree Alphitonia excelsa Sticky hop bush Dodonaea viscosaSweet blackthorn Bursaria tenuifoliaTerminalia Terminalia speciesTim tam Timonius timonTownsville wattle Acacia leptostachyaTuckeroo Cupaniopsis anacardioidesTulipwood Harpullia pendulaWeeping melaleuca Melaleuca leucadendraWhitewood Atalaya hemiglauca
Healthy Habitat for Schools Fact Sheet 2Cyclone resistant trees for your school yard Common Name Species Name Characteristics Baeckea Babingtonia virgata This is a tall shrub 2m with small leaves and dense branches that can be pruned to shape. It needs to be well watered. Bailey’s grevillea, Grevillea baileyana This tree grows up to 30m and should be planted while white silky oak or small to allow a good root system to develop. The golden oak strong nectar perfume attracts myriad insects and it has been successfully grown in a wide range of soils and climates. In open, drier areas it grows quite happily but is sometimes prone to loss of branches by wind. Black tea tree Melaleuca bracteata It grows to 5-10m and tolerates heavy clays and high pH and salinity. It is tolerant of most well drained soils and situations; water logging and moderate frosts. Bloomfield penda Xanthostemon It is slow growing and reaches a height of 5m. This verticillatus shrub can stand in water during wet season. It is suitable as a container plant. Blue quandong Elaeocarpus grandis This rainforest tree can reach 35m and grows straight with distinctively radiating branches, angled upwards from the trunk at about 45 degrees. It provides the favourite food of the Wompoo Pigeon. Bottlebrush or Melaleuca viminalis This is a shrub to small tree 6-8m. It requires little callistemon maintenance but appreciates regular watering. It grows in a range of soils including sand, loam and clay. The flowers attract insects and birds. This tree is very tolerant of flooding and water logging.
Common Name Species Name CharacteristicsBroad leafed Melaleuca viridiflora This grows up to 20m. It can grow in dry areas suchpaperbark as a rocky headland in addition to swamps, with its roots submerged for long periods of time.Burdekin plum Pleiogynium This grows up to 20m and forms a dense shade timorense canopy. It is usually found along watercourses in riparian forest, vine thicket, gallery forest, beach scrub and occasionally open woodlands. The fruit are edible when raw, to ripen bury in sand or stored in a paper bag. It has traditional uses – the Juru people made boomerangs and other hard timber tools from them. Plant used as a fish poison. It attracts red-tailed black cockatoos and is flood and fire resistant.Cherry satinash Syzgium leuhmannii This Lilly Pilly grows to 7m tall and 3m wide. It is a decorative compact medium tree, is fast growing and has foliage to ground level. The white flowers are followed by fleshy red berries that are edible. The trees can be used as screens, windbreaks, hedges, bird attractants and garden ornamentals.Cinnamon Cinnamomum This grows from 6-12m tall. The trees grow in full sun zeylanicum and part shade and enjoy regular watering throughout the year. The bark is dried and used as a spice; leaves contain eugenol and are sometimes used as a substitute for cloves. They have multi-stemmed trunks.Cycads Cycas spp. They do not like getting their ‘feet’ wet. They can help keep the soil cool in the hot climate and the soil moist during the dry season.Fan palms or Livistona spp. This grows up to 18m, is slow to establish and requirescabbage tree full sun. The fruits are eaten by Pigeons.Freshwater Carallia brachiata It is an excellent shade tree that grows to 5-20m. Thismangrove species is tolerant of strong winds. The fruit can be eaten, the bark is traditionally used for medicine for itching and the wood is used for making spears and furniture. It is a useful nursery tree in revegetation projects. It is tolerant of flooding and waterlogging but sensitive to fire.Griffith’s ash Fraxinus griffithii It grows to 8m high and 4m wide. This is a fast growing small tree with attractive foliage.
Common Name Species Name CharacteristicsLaurel Cryptocarya Laurel is a rainforest tree 30m high that attracts hypospodia butterflies.Leichhardt tree Nauclea orientalis This is a medium to tall tree up to 30m with a dense crown and is deciduous. It is fast growing, hardy and tolerant of flood prone conditions. The fruit are edible when ripe (pale brown and soft) but contains bitter tasting seeds. Traditional uses include crushing the leaves or raw bark for a tea to induce vomiting, Using bark as medicine for treating bruises, rheumatism, fever and snake bites. Large leaves can be used as plates. The trunk is soft and has been used for dug-out canoes and coolamons (vessel for food and water). The huge hawk moth larvae eat the leaves.Mahogany Swietenia mehogani This is a fast growing, straight trunked, semi-deciduous tree that grow to 9-21m. They can grow in full sun or part shade, need regular watering and are tolerant of most soil types. They have been found to even grow in salty soils.Mango bark, scrub Canarium Large rainforest tree that grows to 10-15. Separateturpentine or brown australianum male and female plants. This tree has many culturalcudgeree uses and is a hardy tree for revegetation projects.Mango pine or Barringtonia This beautiful plant grows up to 20 m high and 8mcassowary pine calyptrata wide. It has a large seed and cassowaries eat the fruits.Native sugar palm or Arenga australasica This plant forms a good windbreak and binds the soilnative honey palm together, reducing erosion.Northern swamp Lophostemon This tree grows to 20m tall and 15m width. It prefersmahogany grandiflorus hot overhead sun to dappled light and tolerant to most soil conditions. Once mature, it has a high tolerance to flood and fire.Pongamia Millettia pinnata This grows to 15-25m tall and is deciduous. It is a wide canopy tree well suited to intense heat and sunlight. Its dense network of lateral roots and thin long taproot make it extremely drought and wind tolerant. It is a leguminous tree that is well adapted to arid zones. Juices from the plant (as well as the oil) have antiseptic qualities and are resistant to pests. It is also flood tolerant.
Common Name Species Name CharacteristicsRibbon wood, pink Euroschinua falcata This is a great shade tree that grows up to 30m tall. Itpoplar or maiden’s produces a lot of fruit which is edible by many speciesblush of birds.Sea/tropical almond Terminalia catappa This can grow to 30m tall. It is deciduous, the nuts are edible and the oil extracted from the dried nuts is used in cooking. It is a great shade tree.Terminalia Terminalia This grows to 15-30m high. It is deciduous and is used microcarpa in riparian revegetation projects to provide an upper canopy. The flowers attract insects and the fruit attracts numerous birds especially red-tailed black cockatoos and fruit pigeons. It is tolerant of flooding and periodic waterlogging.Tuckeroo or Cupaniopsis This is a small tree growing to 15m. The seeds arecarrotwood anacardioides edible and the timber can be used. It is a hardy tree if planted initially as a small tree and allowed to develop a good root system. It is fire sensitive and has moderate flood and salt tolerance.Tulip oak Argyrodendron sp. This is a rainforest emergent growing 40-60m tall.Tulip wood Harpulia pendula Its garden height is 7-10m and width is 2-3m. This is a fast growing, small to medium evergreen tree with an erect stem. It will tolerate dry conditions and most soil types. It does not have invasive roots, has a dense crown and does not grow high enough to disturb overhead power lines. It requires full sun and is a great shade tree.Turkey bush or Leptospermum It is an excellent tall shrub 2-3m with fine leaves andweeping tea-tree madidum flexible branches. It is often incorrectly sold as L. brachyandrum.White apple Syzygium forte This grows up to 30m. The fruits are eaten by cassowaries and spectacled flying foxes.White beech Gmelina leichhardtii In the garden it is 8-10m high and 8m wide. Its rainforest height is 10-15m and 12m wide. It provides part shade, is deciduous and well drained soil is essential.Yellow / golden Xamthostemon It is best planted as a small to 1m tall tree. Masspenda chrysanthus flowering occurs one month later. It is a native with non-invasive roots. It grows to 10m high and 4m wide.
References:Calvert G. (2009) Bush friendly plants of the Burdekin Dry Tropics, NQ Dry Tropics,Townsville.Calvert G. (2010) The Burdekin Delta Tree Guide, Lower Burdekin Landcare Association,Ayr.
Healthy Habitat for Schools Fact Sheet 3Shade Trees for the School Yard Common Species Name Comments Names Banyans Ficus Banyans are strangler figs with aerial roots. It benghalensis is wind resistant. Cluster fig Ficus racemosa This grows to 20m, is strongly buttressed and deciduous in the dry season. It is tolerant of floods and waterlogging but not to fire. Forest siris Albizia procera This is a semi-deciduous tree that grows to 18m. It is found in a broad range of habitats and is used in riparian and woodland revegetation projects. They are used to suppress weedy grasses and are moderately tolerant of floods. The mature trees are tolerant of fire. Hairy fig or Ficus drupacea This is a spreading strangler fig that grows to Drupe fig 30m. Helicopter Gyrocarpus This is a deciduous softwood shrub from 1-6m tree americanus tall with white flowers and winged seeds. Native white Pipturus This is a small tree or tall shrub 3-10m. Male mulberry argenteus and female trees separate. The female plants are popular for bush tucker. It is intolerant of fire.
Common Species Name Comments NamesNorthern Lophostemon This tree grows to 20m tall and 15m wide. Itswamp box grandiflorus has high tolerance of fire/floods when mature.Peanut tree Sterculia This is a medium tree 5-10m. It is deciduous quadrifida and grows in vine thickets, beach scrub and riparian forests. The trees can resist cool fires. It has traditional uses. These trees are often used for coastal stabilisation projects.Pongamia Millettia pinnata It grows from 5-10m and is tolerant of flooding and waterlogging. Is used in flood prone riparian revegetation projects as a foot path tree and it can be used under powerlines or as a screen planting.Scaly ash Ganophyllum This grows from 10-32m. The fruit attracts falcatum many bird species. It is moderately tolerant to flood and salt breeze but is not fire tolerant.Sea / tropical Terminalia This can grow to 30m. Associated with coastalalmond catappa vegetation, especially strandline communities and beach forests including rocky shores and edges of mangrove swamps.Soap bush Alphitonia This is a large spreading shrub that grows to excelsa 10m. It is intolerant of fire but is drought resistant. It is often used in riparian and woodland revegetation projects.Terminalia Terminalia This grows to 15-30m high and has a shady microcarpa upper canopy. It is deciduous in dry seasons.White fig Ficus virens A large buttressed tree that grows from 15- 30m tall. It is found in a variety of soil types and produces large aerial roots. The fruit attracts many birds and bats while the trunk provides hollows for other animals. It is intolerant of fire.
References:Calvert G. (2009) Bush Friendly Plants of the Burdekin Dry Tropics, NQ Dry Tropics,Townsville.Calvert G. (2010) The Burdekin Delta Tree Guide, Lower Burdekin Landcare Association,Ayr.
Healthy Habitat for Schools Fact Sheet 4What not to plant in yourschool yardThere are many plants that are poisonous if eaten byhumans or animals and so are not suitable for the schoolyard.Toxic native species of Australia belong to about 70 ofthe 200 plant families. The native plant groups that areparticularly toxic include the legumes (Fabaceae,Mimosaceae), the nightshades and tobaccos(Solanaceae), the spurges (Euphorbiaceae), the grasses(Poaceae), the cycads (Cycadaceae, Zamiaceae), thesaltbushes (Chenopodiaceae), the riceflowers (Thymelaeaceae) and the buttercups(Ranunculaceae).Here is a list of some poisonous native Australian plants that should be avoided onyour school grounds: Common Name Scientific Name Blue flax lily Dianella revoluta Bluebush pea Crotalaria eremea ssp. eremea Bottle trees Brachychiton rupestris Bracken Pteridium esculentum Bracken fern Pteridium revolutum Buttercup Ranunculus species Butterfly flag Diplarrena moraea
Common Name Scientific NameByfield fern Bowenia serrulataCaustic vine Sarcostemma brevipedicellatum - formerly S. australeChillagoe horse poison Crotalaria aridicolaCrab’s eye Abrus precatoriusDarling peas Swainsona speciesEllangowan poison bush Myoporum desertiFinger cherry Rhodomyrtus macrocarpaFlame tree Brachychiton acerifoliusFlaxweeds Pimelea speciesFoxgloves Digitalis purpureaGrass trees Xanthorrhoea speciesGrey nicker-nut Caesalpinia bonducGroundsel or fireweed Senecio lautusIdiot fruit Idiospermum australienseMapoon or ada-a Morinda reticulataMilky pine Alstonia scholarisMorgan flower Morgania floribundaMulga or rock fern Cheilanthes sieberiNardoo fern Marsilea drummondiiNative leek Bulbine bulbosaNative tobaccos Nicotiana speciesNodding blue lily or blind grass Stypandra glauca - known as S.imbricata and S.grandiflora
Common Name Scientific Name Oleander Nerium oleander Pink rice flower Pimelea ferruginea Plover daisy or flat billy buttons Ixiolaena brevicompta Rattlepods Crotalaria species Selenium weed Neptunia amplexicaulis Sticky tail flower Anthocercis viscosa Thargomindah nightshade Solanum sturtianum Trefoil rattlepod Crotalaria medicaginea Waxflower Hoya australis Weir vine Ipomoea sp. aff. Calobra White cedar Melia azedarach var. australasica Wild parsnips Trachymene ochracea, T. cyanantha and T.glaucifolia Woolly waterlily or frogsmouth Philydrum lanuginosum Yellow tail flower Anthocercis littoreaReference:Dr Ross McKenzie, 1997, Australian Native Poisonous Plants, Australian NativePlant Society, viewed July 2011, http://anpsa.org.au/APOL7/sep97-4.html
Healthy Habitat for Schools Fact Sheet 5Animal Attracting PlantsAttract native animals to your school yard with these plants:Plants to attract honeyeaters: • Callistemon species • Grevillea species - particularly those with large flowers • Lophostemon grandiflorus • Melaleuca species • Melicope rubra (syn Evodiella muelleri) • Xanthostemon chrysanthusPlants to attract fruit eating birds: • Acmena hemilampra • Chionanthus ramiflora • Cupaniopsis anacardioides • Diospyros geminate • Euroschinus falcate • Ficus species • Livistona decora • Livistona drudei • Pittosporum ferrugineum • Pleiogynium timorense • Syzygium species
• Terminalia catappa • Terminalia muelleriPlants to attract insect eating birds: • Bursaria tenuifolia • Callistemon species • Grevillea species • Melaleuca species • Xanthostemon chrysanthusPlants to attract parrots and cockatoos: • Casuarina cunninghamiana • Pleiogynium timorense • Terminalia macrocarpaPlants to attract butterflies: Plant Species Butterflies Aristolochia tagala Cairns Birdwing, Big Greasy, Red-bodied Swallowtail Brachychiton australis Common Aeroplane Ficus species Common Crow, Two Brand Crow Graptophyllum species Orchard Swallowtail Melicope elleryana Ulysses Swallowtail Melicope rubra Ulysses Swallowtail Terminalia cattapa Common Oak BlueWhether you’re in a temperate, sub tropical or tropical area consider growing these plants toattract butterflies: Acacia species Grevillea species Actinotus helinanthi Hakea species Alphitonia excelsea Hoya species
Amyema species Hymenanthera dentate Angophora species Hypocalymma species Aristolochia deltantha Jacksonia scoparia Banksia species Jasminum lineare Brachychiton species Kunzea species Brachyscome multifida Leptospermum species Bracteantha bracteata Lomandra species Breynia species Lomatia species Buckinghamia celsissima Melaleuca species Bursaria species Microcirtus species Callicoma serratifolia Micromelum minutum Callistemon species Microlaena stipoides Calytrix tetragona Morinda species Carex fascicularis Olearia species Cassia species (some Passiflora species now Senna) Chionochloa species Poa species Chrysocephalum species Pomaderris species Craspedia canens Pultenaea species Dianella species Senna species Doryanthes species Tasmannia species Eucalyptus species Thelionema aespitosa Exocarpus cupressiformis Wahlenbergia speciesPlants to attract gliders and possums: • Acmena hemilampra • Callistemon species
• Eucalyptus crebra • Eucalyptus tereticornis • Lophostemon grandiflorus • Melaleuca species • Syzygium speciesPlants to attract koalas: • Eucalyptus crebra • Eucalyptus tereticornisPlants to attract lizards: • Any tufted grass or rush • Dianella atraxis • Dianella caerulea • Lomandra hystrix • Lomandra longifolia • Xanthorrhoea johnsonii Heavily mulched gardensPlants to attract useful insects: Common plant name Desirable insects for your garden Angelica, Queen Annes Lacewings, ladybugs, hover flies, parasitic mini wasps and lace and parsley tachinid flies. Golden marguerite Lacewings, ladybugs, hover flies, parasitic mini wasps and tachinid flies. Alliums Hover flies and parasitic mini wasps. Carrots Lacewings, hover flies, assassin bugs, big-eyed bugs and parasitic wasps. Bergamot/bee balm Hover flies Coriander Lacewings, ladybugs, hover flies, parasitic mini wasps and tachinid flies.
Common plant name Desirable insects for your garden White clover Parasitic wasps and tachinid flies. Candytuft Syrphid flies Dill and fennel Lacewings, ladybugs, hoverflies, syrphid flies, tachinid flies and parasitic wasps. Goldenrod Ladybugs, hover flies, assassin bugs, big-eyed bugs and parasitic wasps Feverfew and thyme Hover flies Lavender Hover flies Yarrow Lacewings, ladybugs, hover flies and parasitic wasps. Morning glory Ladybugs and syrphid flies. Speedwell Ladybugs and hover flies. Alfalfa Ladybugs, assassin bugs, big-eyed bugs, damsel bugs and parasitic wasps.References:Calvert G. (2009) Bush Friendly Plants of the Burdekin Dry Tropics, NQ Dry Tropics,Townsville.Calvert G. (2010) The Burdekin Delta Tree Guide, Lower Burdekin Landcare Association,Ayr.Websites for further information:State of Queensland, Environmental Protection Agency, May 2004, Mackay City Council,July 2011 http://www.derm.qld.gov.au/register/p01362aa.pdfSociety for Growing Australian Plants Townsville Branch Inc., 2009 – June 2011, July 2011,http://www.sgaptownsville.org.au/Lowchensaustralia, 2009, Lowchensaustralia, viewed July 2011,http://www.lowchensaustralia.com/pests/plants.htm
Healthy Habitat for Schools Fact Sheet 6Companion planting in your school yardPlanting or improving a herb or vegetable garden? Have you heard of the benefits ofcompanion planting?‘Companions’ are planted close together in the garden because they help each other out.This help may aid in pest control, pollination, improving growth and flavour, cropproductivity and attracting beneficial insects.AlliumUse with vegetables (except peas and beans), fruit trees, flowering onions, garlic,leek, onions, and flowering onions for aphids, carrot flies, tree borers, and weevils.It protects roses from black spot, mildew and aphids but is believed to inhibitgrowth of peas and beans.AniseAttracts predatory wasps, which prey on aphids. It may repel aphids andimproves growth of any plants growing near it.Bachelors buttonsThis plant has nectar high in sugar so it is very attractive to hover flies, ladybug,lacewings, and beneficial wasps.BasilBasil will repel flying insects (flies and mosquitoes) if planted between your tomatoplants. It is also helpful with tomato hornworms and asparagus beetles.
Bay leavesPlace fresh leaves in a container of beans or grains to repel weevils and moths.Use for ladybug invasion by laying the leaves around the school.BeansBeans will enrich the soil by ‘fixing nitrogen.’ Legumes (beans and peas included)add nitrogen to the soil.Bee BalmUse for attracting beneficial bugs and bees, plant with tomatoes to improve flavourand growth.BorageUse around tomatoes, strawberries, and fruit orchards to repel tomato worms.They add calcium, potassium and other minerals to the soil. They are great forattracting honey bees and more than 100 beneficial insects. Borage may benefitplants in close proximity by increasing their resistance to pests and disease.Borage will self-seed.CarawayIf you have hard, compacted soil, plant caraway to help loosen it up. It attractsbeneficial insects.Castor Bean PlantRepels mosquitoes.CatnipUse around eggplant to repel flea beetles, aphids, Japanese beetles, squashbugs, ants, weevils, mosquitoes and mice.CeleryUse near cauliflower, tomatoes, leek, and cabbage. It will repel white cabbageflies.ChamomilePlant just a few around cabbage and onions for better flavour and improvedgrowth, even for failing plants. It attracts hoverflies and wasps.
ChervilWill improve growth and flavour of radishes.ChivesRepels many pests problematic to fruit tree and tomato plants. It increasesflavour and growth of carrots.CitriodoraRepels mosquitoes.Citronella grassPlant in pots to repel mosquitoes.CloverA good cover crop to improve soil. It attracts beneficial insects. There are manydifferent types of clover, each one with qualities that benefit certain conditions.CorianderPlant near all vegetables to repel aphids, slugs, snails, spider mites, and attractbees.DillPlant around cabbage and it will improve growth and flowers. It attracts bees andincreases the growth of cabbage. Do not plant near carrots. Swallowtail butterflycaterpillars will eat dill.ElderberryA general insecticide, the leaves encourage compost fermentation.FennelControls aphids, slugs, snails, spider mites and mosquitoes. It attracts beneficialinsects that are looking for nectar but can inhibit growth of many plants so plantaway from the garden.
GarlicRepels ants, aphids, flea beetles, mosquitoes, ticks, onion flies, weevils, borers,Japanese beetles and spider mites. Roses benefit from garlic since it repelsaphids. Crushed garlic is a good addition to any homemade insecticide spray.Garlic cloves, placed in the ground around plants will deter slugs. Garlic is anatural pesticide against mosquito larvae. Plant under peach trees to control leafcurl and near roses to enhance scent.GeraniumRepels cabbage worms and Japanese beetles. Spray house and garden plantswith geranium oil diluted in distilled water to discourage larvae from feeding. Plantaround grapes, roses, corn, and cabbage.HenbitMost insects are repelled by henbit.HorehoundAdd horehound to milk to kill flies. It also attracts bees to your gardens.HyssopWill deter cabbage moths if planted around cabbage and grapes and may improvegrowth for these plants.LamiumRepels potato bugs.LavenderRepels ants, aphids, moths, and fleas. Use the oil in insect sprays as flies andmosquitoes don’t like the fragrance. Use lavender sachet bags to protect clothesagainst moths. Excellent cut flowers.LeekUse near carrots, celery and onions to improve their growth and repel carrot flies.Lemon BalmSprinkle around squash plants to deter squash bugs. Rub the leaves on your skinto repel mosquitoes. Plant it near beehives and orchards to attract pollinatingbees.
Lemongrass (citronella es)A good mosquito repellent.Lemon ThymePlant in pots to repel mosquitoes.MarigoldEncourages growth if planted near tomatoes, potatoes, strawberries, beans, androses. Repels many insects like Mexican bean beetles and harmful nematodesunder ground.MintWill improve flavour and growth if planted near cabbage and tomatoes. Repelscabbage white moth. Use dried mint in sachet bags in the wardrobe to repelclothes moth.MustardKnown as a trap crop to attract many insect pests. Plant near cabbage,cauliflower, radish, brussel sprouts, collards, turnips, and kohlrabi.NasturtiumRepels aphids, ants, cucumber beetles, squash bugs, white flies, and borers nearfruit trees. Mainly cucumber and squash will benefit. Acts as a trap crop foraphids. Repels borers near fruit trees.OnionRepels cabbage moths, aphids, weevils, carrot flies and mosquitoes. Controlsrust flies, some nematodes and red spiders. It may alter the growth of peas andbeans. Plant it near beets, tomato, lettuce, strawberry, cabbage, broccoli, andcauliflower.OreganoPlant oregano near broccoli. It repels cabbage butterfly.ParsleyParsley repels carrot flies, rose, and asparagus beetles. Plant it near asparagus,carrots, tomato and roses.
PeanutsPeanuts will encourage the growth of corn and squash.PeasIf planted near corn, it will provide extra nitrogen.PennyroyalDeters ants, aphids, fleas, mosquitoes, ticks, gnats, flies, chiggers and cabbagemaggots. Brussel sprouts, broccoli, and cabbage will benefit from pennyroyal.Peppermint (and other Mentha sp.)Repels ants, aphids, cabbage loopers, cabbage grubs, flies, cucumber beetles,flea beetles, squash bugs, whiteflies and mites. Ants dislike peppermint and soyou can prevent them from entering buildings by scenting cotton balls withpeppermint oil, spraying along shelves, and entryways. Grow near roses to deteraphids. Scatter fresh or dried leaves around food to deter mice.PetuniaThis pretty flower is also beneficial in controlling asparagus beetle, leafhoppers,certain aphids, tomato worms, and Mexican bean beetles.PyrethrumRepels most insects like aphids, leafhoppers, spider mites, ticks, and cabbageworms.RadishPlant around cucumbers to deter cucumber beetles.RosemaryRepels cabbage moths, beetles, mosquitoes and slugs. Plant near beans, carrotsand cabbage.RueDeters Japanese beetles. Roses and raspberries benefit from rue but most plantshave an aversion to it, so plant away from the vegetable garden.
SageSage is a companion plant for broccoli, cauliflower, rosemary, cabbage andcarrots. It deters cabbage moth, beetles, carrot flies and ticks. Do not plant sagenext to cucumbers.SoybeansPlant soybeans near corn as they add nitrogen to the soil. It repels chinch bugsand Japanese beetles.SpearmintThis deters ants and aphids. Grow spearmint near roses to deter aphids. Scatterfresh or dried leaves around food to deter mice.Summer SavouryWill improve growth of green beans and deter bean beetles.Thai Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon citratus)Is an effective mosquito repellent.ThymeRepels cabbage worms, flea beetles and cabbage maggots.TomatoPlant near roses and will protect them from black spot.Wormwood (Artemisia)Will deter black flea beetles, malaria mosquitoes, cabbage worm and butterflies.When planted as a border it helps to keep animals and many bugs out of thegarden. It can improve the flavour and enhance the growth of plants.Reference:Lowchensaustralia, 2009, Lowchensaustralia, viewed July 2011,www.lowchensaustralia.com/pests/plantsFig Tree Community Garden, date unknown, Fig Tree Community Garden, viewed July2011, www.figtree.org.au/companion_plantingSustainable Gardening Australia, 2011, SGA, viewed July 2011, www.sgaonline.org.au
Healthy Habitat for Schools Fact Sheet 7Prepare to plantBefore you start digging, what other preparation is required?Do you have the right resources? Tools (gloves, bags, digging equipment, shovel and rakes) Mulch Fertilisers and water crystals Stakes and ties IrrigationSoil type and conditionTest your soil to check its pH and nutrient levels. There arepH test kits available at your local nursery. Some plants prefer sandy soils whileothers may prefer clay. 1. When the soil is moist, pick up a handful and squeeze it tightly in your hand. 2. Try to pinch the soil into a ribbon. If the soil forms a ribbon up to 5cm long = clay soil. If the soil forms a ribbon only 2.5cm long = loam soil. If the soil falls apart easily and wont make a ribbon = sandy soil.More information can be found on soil types on fact sheet 8.
What is the drainage like in your patch?Dig a hole and fill it with 10cm of water. Return in two hours and if the water isgone, there is good drainage. If not, you will need to consider which plant specieswill most suitable and your irrigation methods.Fertilise native plants with a slow release native fertiliser, treated with a waterretention polymer such as Terra Cottem Soil Conditioner™ to increase plantestablishment rates. Use a fertiliser low in phosphorus. To determine if yourfertiliser is suitable, check the N:P:K (nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium)composition. You want the one that contains less than 3% P.Using organic fertiliser means that run-off from school grounds into waterways willcarry less detrimental sediment and chemicals. Organic fertilisers are bothnaturally occurring such as manure, worm castings, peat and seaweed, ormanufactured, such as bone meal, seaweed extract and more.What time of year are you planting?Planting just before or during the wet season (November to May) will require lesswatering. If you plant during the dry season (June to October), plan for effectiveirrigation. Will your plants require maintenance during the school holidays?Plot out on your patch the height and width of plants when they are mature.Calculate the distance needed from buildings, structures and other plants. Will theroots disturb pathways at maturity?Location, location, location…Trees develop better root systems and can have fewer problems when grown inmulched areas rather than lawn areas. The young tree is disadvantaged when itsroots are forced to compete with grass roots for water, nutrients and oxygen.Plants can be sun or shade loving. Where should they be planted in relation to theschool buildings? Plants can also be sensitive to salt. How close is your school tothe ocean?What is the topography of the school grounds? Is it flat or hilly? Where does therain water flow and collect in the yard? What direction does the wind normallyblow? Do you need to select species that are strong wind tolerant?Some trees are known to be: drought resistant/tolerant fire resistant/retardant
Flood resistant/tolerantPlants grow at different rates. Fast growing trees have positive characteristics: Providing soil erosion protection Providing shade to suppress weeds Creating a cool surface for understory species to grow beneath Like full sun and respond well to disturbances such as fire Produce many seeds.Fast growing plants include acacias, figs, the Leichhardt tree, the white mulberrytree, the glueberry tree and the macaranga.Slow growing species also have positive characteristics including: providing habitat for native animals providing extensive roots for erosion control excellent canopies for shading out weeds.Slow growing tress includes the Burdekin plum, the native damson and thepongamia.References:Cullen K., Herse K., Mangru (2003) From Seeds to Success: A bush regenerationmanual for Townsville, Thuringowa and the Burdekin, Tropical Urban productionand Landcare Group, Townsville.
Healthy Habitat for Schools Fact Sheet 8Know your soilThe soils present in your school yard will depend on the history of the site. Somecommon local soils include sandy loams near the coast, heavy clays further inland,and a variety of soil types in areas along rivers and creeks that regularly flood.Your school may also have soils that have been brought in from elsewhere. Youfind out what soils are present by digging test holes, measuring the pH of the soilsand examining the texture of the soils (e.g., how much sand or clay is in the soil).Determining your soil type and its characteristics will help you to choose suitable long-living plants and create a low maintenance garden. More information on soil type can be found in fact sheet 7. Sandy soil has free-draining large particles; good aeration and plants thrive in it. However they cannot retain water or nutrients well. Sandy soils can be improved by adding organic matter such as animal manure or garden compost.Clay soil has small particles to retain water and nutrients well. Although itspotential to have drainage problems can be difficult for plants to grow. Clay soilcan be improved by adding organic matter, coarse sand and gypsum. Gypsumshould be added at a rate of 0.5 to 1kg per square metre of soil.Reference:Yates Garden Guide (2006), HarperCollins Publishers, Australia.
Healthy Habitat for Schools Fact Sheet 9How to plant in your school yard10 Steps to planting: 1. Dig a hole twice as wide and as deep as the plant’s root ball. Set asid soil in a neat pile and add planting mix if necessary (1 part mix to 2 parts soil). 2. Loosen up the sides of the hole to promote root penetration. 3. Make sure the roots are not tangled. 4. Add slow release fertiliser and water crystals. 5. Place the root ball in the hole so the top is sitting 3 cm above the soil level. 6. Backfill with soil and fertiliser. Don’t backfill with compost as it does not have oxygen. Pack firmly to remove air pockets. 7. Create a well around your tree with soil to help retain water and reduce water runoff. 8. Place mulch to a depth of 150mm around the base of your tree, but away from the trunk to prevent rot. 9. Stake trees, large shrubs and other plants that could be damaged by the wind. Use ties to secure your plant to the stake while allowing movement and growth. 10. Thoroughly water the plant immediately and then regularly for 6 months.Creating a natural visual and noise barrier along the school fence:This should be comprised of flood tolerant trees and shrubs, planted to form aclosed canopy that will not require slashing. Plant the tallest trees towards thefence with medium trees as spacers and a zone of medium trees and shrubsacross the boundary to create a complete ‘wall’ of vegetation.
Using the below diagram plant tall trees (T) at least 10m apart, with medium (M)trees as spacers and a barrier of shrubs (S). FENCE TMTMMTM MMMTMMT MMMMMMMMMMMM SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSCreating a fire resistant wall of trees:Comprised of flood tolerant trees and shrubs, planted to form a closed canopy thatwill not require slashing. Protected with a zone of fire resistant plants that suppressgrass growth – a ‘green fire break’ (GF).These GF species need to be planted close enough together to form a continuouscanopy. Plantings should have a high canopy of tall trees in the middle, slopingdown to medium trees and shrubs to create a cool microclimate within. FENCE GF GF GF GF GF GF GF GF GF GF GF GF GF GF GF GF GF MMTMMMTMMMT TMMTMMTMM MMTMMMMTMMMT MMMMMMM SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSCreating a forest for wildlife:To create a forest community, tall trees should have a touching canopy above andmedium trees a touching canopy below. Studies have shown that birds revisitgardens as much for their vegetative structure as they do for plant species.Plantings should be approximately 1.5 to 2m apart with small and medium plantsused as spacers between the tall trees. The tall trees need space to grow up andexpand to their full size without competition.Shrubs and medium sized trees seal forest edges and create a shady microclimatewithin the forest reducing light levels and weeds.
Use the table below for the most ideal plantings of trees for your forest community.Tall Medium Small Medium TallMedium Small Medium Small MediumSmall Medium Tall Medium SmallMedium Small Medium Small MediumTall Medium Small Medium Tall
Healthy Habitat for Schools Fact Sheet 10Maintaining your new plantsYou have new plants in your school yard. Now maintenance including watering,mulching, weeding and pruning will establish your garden.WateringA general guide to watering new plants in Townsville’s dry and sunnyconditions is: Water your new tree slowly with one bucket of water as soon as it is planted. The next day, add another bucket of water. Water once a week for the next 12 weeks. Water fortnightly and then monthly or until the tree is well established.However the above guidelines depend on a few factorssuch as: Time of year. If you are planting before or during the wet season you may not need to water as much. Soil composition. If the soil is sandy you will need to water more and if it is clay you will need to water less. The tree’s natural habitat. If the tree is from a wetland area it will need more water than a tree from a rocky area.
MulchingMake sure your plants are surrounded by mulch to help them retain water and toprevent weeds from sprouting. To prevent stem rot, mulch should not touch theplant’s stem. Your plants may need extra fertiliser and mulch over time.WeedingWeeds that grow around the trees compete for nutrients and water. Some canquickly kill young plants. Remove all weeds before and after planting. Weedcontrol is usually required for five years after planting.PruningNative plants can grow into thick bush shrubs, perfect for natural fences if prunedproperly. Plants need to be pruned lightly and regularly from the day they areplanted to six months. After that they only need pruning every few months.Pruning can be safe and easy for teachers and students to do. Simply by pinchingoff the soft growing tips, the plant is forced to then grow outwards instead ofupwards. This causes the plant to grow thick and bushy.It is also useful to cut off any dead flowers and branches.Other considerations for your new garden: Remove any dead branches, leaves and flowers. Replace any missing or broken stakes – especially if they are used to warn people using lawnmowers or whipper snippers to stay away from your tree. Install signs if needed, for communication or interpretation.References:Greening Australia, 2007, Greening Australia, viewed July 2011,www.greeningaustralia.org.au
Healthy Habitat for Schools Fact Sheet 11Pest Animals of QueenslandPest animals have environmental impacts. The following is a list of the commondeclared pest animals under the Land Protection (Pest and Stock RouteManagement) Act 2002 and some non-declared pest animals.If you believe you have a pest animal on your school grounds or need moreinformation contact your local council.The Townsville City Council pest animal number is 1300 878 001.Or contact Biosecurity Office on 4760 1591 (Townsville) 4761 5700 (ChartersTowers). Aconophora (Aconophora compressa) African serval (Leptailurus serval) American corn snake (Elaphe guttata) Asian bag mussel (Musculista senhousia) Asian green mussel (Perna viridis) Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) Asian house gecko (Hemidactylus frenatus) Asian spined toad (Bufo melanostictus) Australian plague locust (Chortoicetes terminifera) Blackbird (Turdus merula) Blackbuck antelope (Antilope cervicapra) Bumblebee, large earth (Bombus terrestris) Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Cane toad (Bufo marinus) Cobra (Naja spp.) Deer (feral) (if species unknown) Deer (chital, axis) (feral) (Axis axis)
Deer (fallow) (feral) (Dama dama) Deer (red) (feral) (Cervus elaphus) Deer (rusa) (feral) (Cervus timorensis) Dingo (Canis familiaris dingo) Dog, wild (Canis familiaris) Exotic pest fish, aquarium fish Fallow deer (feral) (Dama dama) Feral cat (Felis catus) Feral goat (Capra hircus) Feral pig (Sus scrofa) Ferret (Mustela furo) Fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) Fox (Vulpes vulpes) Horse (feral) (Equus caballus) House mouse (Mus domesticus) Indian house crow (Corvus splendens) Indian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) Indian myna (Acridotheres tristis) Indian palm squirrel (Funambulus species) Invasive ants (including fire ants, yellow crazy ants and electric ants) Lantana sap-sucking bug (Aconophora compressa)* Locust (Australian plague) (Chortoicetes terminifera) Locust (migratory) (Locusta migratoria) Locust (spur-throated) (Austracris guttulosa) Locust (yellow-winged) (Gastrimargus musicus) Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) Red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) Red-billed quelea (Quelea quelea) Savannah cat (Leptailurus serval and felis cactus) Small hive beetle Spur-throated locust (Austracris guttulosa) Stoat (Mustela erminea) Varroa mite (Varroa destructor; pathogenic Varroa jacobsoni) Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes)Reference:Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011, Queensland Government, viewed July2011, http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au
Healthy Habitat for Schools Fact Sheet 12Weeds in your school yardWeeds can have serious impacts on a school’s biodiversity. It is important to beable to identify and remove them, generally by simply digging or pulling the weedsout.Weeds can be sneaky to identify. They can look like plants that are not weeds,including native or endangered species. They can look very different in theirjuvenile and mature stages.A weed is a plant that is simply in the wrong place. They are often invasive, canquickly spread and can have negative economical, environmental and socialimpacts. Weeds may be introduced to Australia or are Australian and growingoutside their natural range. Around 28,000 plant species have been introducedinto Australia since European settlement. There are over 1166 species ofintroduced plants in Queensland and Townsville has over 235 introduced plantsthat is increasing at an average rate of nine new plants per year. Weeds costsQueensland over $600 million per year.Weeds can invade and replace native vegetation, alter species composition andabundance, alter fire regimes and choke waterways. Weeds can affect animals byreducing natural habitat and food. They can also be toxic plants.Weeds are spread by humans (deliberate or accidental) or by animals, wind orwater. They can be controlled by many different methods including mechanical,chemical, manual, mulching, hydrology, fire and by planting local native species(biological).How to identify weeds: Consult an expert such as staff from NQ Dry Tropics or Greening Australia Field guides
Botanical keys Herbarium specimensIf a plant cannot be identified using online tools or weed identification publications,correct identification can be gained by sending a sample to theQueensland Herbarium. The website also provides information oncollecting and preparing plant specimens for identification.http://www.derm.qld.gov.au/wildlife-ecosystems/plants/queensland_herbarium/Six steps to beating weeds: 1. Identify where the weeds are: Not present Scattered Dense 2. Work from weed free areas into the scattered areas and then the dense areas. 3. Try to control weeds before they mature and set seeds. 4. Reduce germination by not causing extensive soil disturbance (such as using machinery). Avoid using non-selective herbicides. 5. Encourage competition from native species. 6. Prevent weeds from entering your school grounds on vehicles or machinery.Where to find more information: Biosecurity Queensland: http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/4790_13149.htm Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries: http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/4790_8331.htm Greening Australia: http://www.greeningaustralia.org.au/ James Cook University: fact sheets on North Queensland weeds http://www-public.jcu.edu.au/discovernature/weedscommon/index.htm The Australian Tropical Herbarium: http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/cd- keys/rfk/index.html Weed Spotters Queensland Network: http://www.derm.qld.gov.au/wildlife- ecosystems/plants/queensland_herbarium/weed_spotters_queensland_net work.html
Healthy Habitat for Schools Fact Sheet 13Declared Plants of QueenslandA declared plant is a pest or weed that is targeted for control under statelegislation. They potentially have serious economic, environmental or socialimpacts. Declared plants are classified into threeclasses depending on their establishment inQueensland. • Class 1: has the potential to become a serious pest • Class 2: has already spread over Queensland and gaining control is considered to be very important • Class 3: is commonly found in Queensland and land owners are not expected to try and control it.It is the landholders responsibility to control declared weeds on their land. Moreinformation can be found by calling Biosecurity Queensland (Department ofEmployment, Economic Development and Innovation) on 13 25 23. These plants are declared under the Land Protection (Pest and Stock RouteManagement) Act 2002:Class 1 • Acacias non-indigenous to Australia (Acaciella spp., Mariosousa spp., Senegalia spp. (other than Senegalia albizoides) and Acacia spp. (syn. Vachellia spp.) other than Acacia nilotica and Acacia farnesiana)• Alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides)• Anchored water hyacinth (Eichhornia azurea)• Annual thunbergia (Thunbergia annua)
• Badhara bush (Gmelina elliptica)• Bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera sub sp. rotundata)• Bridal creeper (Asparagus asparagoides)• Candleberry myrth (Myrica faya)• Chilean needle grass (Nassella neesiana)• Cholla cactus (Cylindropuntia spp. and their hybrids, other than C. spinosior, C. fulgida and C. imbricata)• Christ´s thorn (Ziziphus spina-christi)• Eurasian water milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum)• Fanwort (Cabomba spp. other than C. caroliniana)• Floating water chestnuts (Trapa spp.)• Fragrant thunbergia (T. fragrans)• Gorse (Ulex europaeus)• Harrisia cactus (Harrisia spp. syn. Eriocereus spp. are Class 1 and H. martinii, H. tortuosa and H. pomanensis syn. Cereus pomanensis) are Class 2• Honey locust (Gleditsia spp. including cultivars and varieties)• Horsetails (Equisetum spp.)• Hygrophila (Hygrophila costata)• Kochia (Bassia scoparia syn. Kochia scoparia)• Koster´s curse (Clidemia hirta)• Lagarosiphon (Lagarosiphon major)• Laurel clockvine (T. laurifolia)• Limnocharis or yellow burrhead (Limnocharis flava)• Madras thorn (Pithecellobium dulce)• Mesquites (all Prosopis spp. and hybrids not yet found in Queensland are Class 1) Prosopis glandulosa, Prosopis pallida and Prosopis velutina) are Class 2• Mexican bean tree (all Cecropia spp.)• Mexican feather grass (Nassella tenuissima)• Miconia (Miconia spp.)• Mikania vine (Mikania spp.)• Mimosa pigra (Mimosa pigra)• Peruvian primrose bush (Ludwigia peruviana)• Prickly pear (Opuntia spp. not yet found in Queensland are Class 1) O. ficus- indica (not declared) and O. stricta, O. aurantiaca, O. monacantha, O. tomentosa and O. streptacantha are Class 2)• Red sesbania (Sesbania punicea)• Salvinia (Salvinia spp. other than S. molesta which is a Class 2)• Senegal tea (Gymnocoronis spilanthoides)• Serrated tussock (Nassella trichotoma)• Siam weed (Chromolaena spp.)• Spiked pepper (Piper aduncum)• Thunbergia
• Water mimosa (Neptunia oleracea and N. plena)• Water soldiers (Stratiotes aloides)• Willow (Salix spp. other than S. babylonica, S. humboldtiana (syn. S. chilensis), S. matsudana, S. x calodendron and S. x reichardtii)• Witch weeds (Striga spp. other than native species)• Yellow ginger (Hedychium flavescens)Class 2:• African boxthorn (Lycium ferocissimum)• Annual ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia)• Bellyache bush (Jatropha gossypiifolia and hybrids)• Cabomba (Cabomba caroliniana)• Chinee apple (Ziziphus mauritiana)• Cholla cactus• Coral cactus (Cylindropuntia fulgida)• Devil´s rope pear (C. imbricata)• Snake cactus (C. spinosior)• Fireweed (Senecio madagascariensis)• Gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus)• Giant sensitive plant (Mimosa diplotricha var. diplotricha)• Groundsel bush (Baccharis halimifolia)• Harrisia cactus (Harrisia martinii syn. Eriocereus martinii, H. tortuosa and H. pomanensis syn. Cereus pomanensis)• Hymenachne or Olive hymenachne (Hymenachne amplexicaulis)• Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata, syn. P. lobata, P. triloba) other than in the Torres Strait Islands• Mesquites (Prosopis glandulosa, P. pallida and P. velutina)• Mother of millions (Bryophyllum delagoense syn. B. tubiflorum, Kalanchoe delagoensis)• Mother of millions hybrid (Bryophyllum x houghtonii (syn. B. daigremontianum x B. delagoense, Kalanchoe x houghtonii)• Parkinsonia (Parkinsonia aculeata)• Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus)• Pond apple (Annona glabra)• Prickly acacia (Acacia nilotica)• Prickly pear• Common pest pear, spiny pest pear (O. stricta; syn. O. inermis)• Tiger pear (O. aurantiaca)• Westwood pear (O. streptacantha)• Tree pears:• Drooping tree pear (O. monacantha syn. O. vulgaris)• Velvety tree pear (O. tomentosa)
• Rat´s tail grasses• American rat´s tail grass (Sporobolus jacquemontii)• Giant Parramatta grass (Sporobolus fertilis)• Giant rat´s tail grass (Sporobolus pyramidalis and S. natalensis)• Parramatta grass (Sporobolus africanus)• Rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora)• Salvinia (Salvinia molesta)• Sicklepods• Sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia)• Foetid cassia (Senna tora)• Hairy cassia (Senna hirsuta)• Telegraph weed (Heterotheca grandiflora)• Thunbergia or blue thunbergia (Thunbergia grandiflora)• Tobacco weed (Elephantopus mollis)• Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)• Water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes)Class 3:• African fountain grass (Pennisetum setaceum)• African tulip tree (Spathodea campanulata)• Aristolochia or Dutchman´s pipe (Aristolochia spp. other than native species)• Asparagus fern (Asparagus aethiopicus ´Sprengeri´, A. africanus and A. plumosus)• Athel pine (Tamarix aphylla)• Balloon vine (Cardiospermum grandiflorum)• Blackberry (Rubus anglocandicans, Rubus fruticosus agg.)• Broadleaved pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius)• Camphor laurel (Cinnamomum camphora)• Captain Cook tree or yellow oleander (Cascabela thevetia syn. Thevetia peruviana)• Cats claw creeper (Macfadyena unguis-cati)• Chinese celtis (Celtis sinensis)• Harungana (Harungana madagascariensis)• Kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum)• Lantana or common lantana (Lantana camara)• Creeping lantana (L. montevidensis)• Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia)• Privets• Broad leaf privet or tree privet (Ligustrum lucidum)• Small leaf privet or Chinese privet (L. sinense)• Purple or ornamental rubber vine (Cryptostegia madagascariensis)• Singapore daisy (Sphagneticola trilobata; syn. Wedelia trilobata)
• White ginger (Hedychium coronarium)• Willows• Pencil willow (Salix humboldtiana syn. S. chilensis)• Tortured willow (Salix matsudana)• Yellow bells (Tecoma stans)References:Declared Weeds of Queensland, Queensland Government Primary industries andfisheries, viewed July 2011,http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/cps/rde/dpi/hs.xsl/4790_7005_ENA_HTML.htm
Healthy Habitat for Schools Fact Sheet 14Cultural knowledge used in the gardenAboriginal people have used Australia’s native plants for food, medicine, materialand tools for around 60,000 years. Many schools enjoy creating a bush tuckergarden to increase biodiversity, native wildlife and learn more about Aboriginalculture.The following table will help you in choosing your native plants that have culturaluses:Common Name Scientific Name CharacteristicsAlexandra palm Archontophoenix The inner heart of the palm is edible alexandrae after being peeled and cooked. The large sheath at the base of the leaf make plates/bowls. The leaves are woven into baskets and the timber is used for making spears.Beach almond Terminalia catappa The seeds are edible after processing.Beach apricot Ximenia americana The plum like fruit turns yellow/orange when it is ready to eat.Beach sheoak Casurina The timber is used to make hand spears equisetifolia and firewood. The leaves and bark have medicinal properties.Blackbean tree Castanospermum The fruits and seeds are toxic and need australe to be processed before consumption.Bloodwood Corymbia intermedia The bark is used for medicine, firewood and timber.
Common Name Scientific Name CharacteristicsBlue fig/Poison fig Ficus albipila The blue edible fruits are covered in white hairs. Fighting shields were made from the wood of this tree.Blue quandong Elaeocarpus The wood is used to make canoes and angustifolius the blue/purple fruit are edible.Broad leafed native Exocarpos latifolius This summer fruiting plant gives cherriescherry that are red, yellow or orange.Bulrushes Typha sp The young shoots are eaten raw. Pollen from the flowers is eaten raw or baked. The sap provides protection against leeches.Burdekin plum Pleiogynium The fruits are eaten or made into a jam. timorenseCloudy tea tree Melaleuca dealbata The flowers of the Cloudy Tea Tree provide nectar. The leaves are used as a medicine and the bark is useful as insulation and for carrying food and water.Cocky apple Planchonia careya The fibrous twigs once pounded, can be teased out to make a brush for painting or to make twine. The large fruits are edible. The bark is used to stun fish and it has medicinal properties.Hakea Hakea lorea The wood is used to make tools and weapons. This plant has medicinal properties.Cottonwood/Native Hibiscus tiliaceus The inner bark is used for string andhibiscus fishing line. The wood is used for building rafts and firesticks.Crabs eyes Abrus precatorius The hard seeds are used by Aboriginals to decorate Ceremonial objects. They are extremely poisonous.Cypress pine Callitris intratropica The bark, wood, sap and leaves are used for medicine, weapons and tools.Goats foot morning Ipomoea pes-caprae The root and leaves have medicinalglory properties and the root is also food.
Common Name Scientific Name CharacteristicsQuinine tree Petalostigma The wood is used for spear throwers pubescens and the fruit are used in medicine such as to prevent malaria.Dogs balls Grewia retusifolia The fruit is boiled down to make a medicinal drink.Geebung/Milky Persoonia falcata This plant is used for medicine andplum weapons.Herbert River Antidesma bunius The edible fruit are ripe when they turncherry red to black.Jungle currant Antidesma The Jungle Currant produces currant- ghaesembilla like fruit that provides an acid pulp around a central stone.Leichhardt tree Nauclea orientalis An infusion of crushed leaves was used to treat ‘sore belly’ by inducing vomiting. The bark was prepared to relieve rheumatic pain and bruising. The trunk was used to make canoes and the leaves were used to protect damper from ashes. Its flowers develop into edible fruit. Fish poisons are made from the bark and roots.Moreton Bay ash Corymbia tessellaris Gum trees are famous for their eucalyptus oil. Crushed leaves in hot water provide relief from colds and their timber was valuable for making hardwood tools. The wood is favoured for firewood and spears.Native passionfruit Passiflora foetida This vine produces small, tasty yellow fruits.Native rosella Abelmoschus This plant has edible leaves, shoots and moschatus roots.Native grape Cayratia trifolia The purple/black fruit are edible.Nicker nut Caesalpinia bonduc The seeds can be eaten after processing and are used for necklaces. The bark is ground into a powder to treat aches and pains.
Common Name Scientific Name CharacteristicsNorthern beefwood Grevillea striata The seeds are edible after processing and boomerangs were made from the root or basal areas. This tree has medicinal properties.Peanut tree or Sterculia quadrifida This plant has medicinal manufacturingMonkey nut and nutritional use. The leaves and bark was made into twine and nets.Rock fig Ficus platypoda Provides edible fruits that are rather dry and tasteless unless soaked in water to make a pulp.Sandpaper fig Ficus opposita Its rough leaves are used for final smoothing of wooden tools and weapons. The fruit is eaten when ripe. The leaves were used for medicine.Screw palm Pandanus sp The fruit is edible after roasting. The leaves were stripped into thin fibres to weave mats and baskets.The cupania tree or Cupaniopsis This has edible orange fruit.Beach tamarind anacardioidesWattle Acacia sp. Some wattles have edible gum which was soaked in water with honey to form a toffee. Roots were cooked and eaten and the wood was used for manufacturing weapons and tools. The red and yellow wattle is used for fibres to weave fishing string.Weeping tea tree Melaleuca The flowers of the Cloudy Tea Tree(paperbark) leucadendron provided nectar, the leaves were used as a medicine and the bark was used for shelters, bedding, slow burning torches and for carrying food and water.White apple Syzygium forte The fruit can be eaten raw or cooked. subsp. forte Fish poison is made from the bark, seed and leaves.Wild orange Capparis canescens The fruit is eaten the plant is used to make medicine.
References:Aboriginal Bush Resources Self Guiding Plant Trail, Town Common NaturalHistory Association,, viewed July 2011,http://www.soe-townsville.org/town_common/foodtrail/Nywaigi Country: Our plants and their cultural uses, Wet Tropics of North EastQueensland Australia, Girringun Aboriginal Corporation and Nywaigi LandCorporation, 2011.A guide to native plant species for re-vegetation in the Upper Burdekin RiverRegion NQ, Girringun Aboriginal Corporation and Biotropica Australia, June 2008
Healthy Habitat for Schools Fact Sheet 15Energy and water conservationEnergy Wise PlantingTree planting around your school buildings not only increasesbiodiversity, it can also help reduce your energy costs by upto 30 percent. A well-planned landscape can reduce thedemand for artificial heating and cooling. Generally, plantingshade trees on the eastern, northern and western sides ofbuildings will reduce the need for heating and cooling.School buildings can get very hot during a dry tropics summeras the sun radiates through windows. Reduce heat by plantingthick shady trees in front of windows.To reduce the energy needed to power your airconditioner, keep them cool byplanting trees around them.Do cold winds whip around your school? Plant a windbreak of trees to calm thewind and increase warmth. In summer rows of trees redirect cooling breezesthrough the school.See Diagram 1 to see how deciduous trees to the north provide shade in summerand allow sunlight to enter in winter.Water saving waysBy planting smart you can help your school save water and money. Before youplant, check your soil type and nutrient needs. Adding organic matter will improveoverall soil quality and reduce water and fertiliser needs.Choose water saving or drought-resistant plants appropriate to the climate. Plantswith similar water needs should be placed together to maximise water efficiencyand to minimise cost. Once established, they will use less water.
Lawns use a lot of water. Only plant lawn where it is really needed. Ground coverand mulch can be a good replacement for lawn. Placing mulch over the soil willhelp cool the soil, reduce weed growth, slow erosion and minimise waterevaporation.Place plants that have similar needs together. Use organic fertilisers and makeyour own compost and mulch.Use efficient watering systems such as sprinklers for grass and drip, spray orbubble delivery systems for shrubs and ground covers. Adjust your irrigationsystem to the changing seasons and regularly test that your system is workingproperly.Water the roots of plants not their leaves. Install a rainwater tank and a grey watersystem. Trees that receive a longer soak on a regular basis deepen their roots and‘grip’ into the ground. These trees are less likely to fall during a high wind event.Fallen trees are often found with root systems only a few centimetres below thesurface.Reference:Energy efficient home design: How an energy efficient home can help you live incomfort and save money, Queensland Government Environmental ProtectionAgency, viewed July 2011,http://qldenergyratings.com.au/media/Energyefficienthomedesign.pdfSustainable Gardening Australia, viewed July 2011,www.sgaonline.org.au/?p=674Water Saving Outside the Home, Townsville City Council,viewed July 2011,www.townsville.qld.gov.au/RESIDENT/WATER/CONSERVATION/Pages/outside.aspx
Healthy Habitat for Schools Fact Sheet 16Funding for school projectsAward/Grant Website/Contact Details CommentsBHP Billiton http://www.scienceawards.org.au/d The BHP Billiton Science AwardsScience Awards efault.asp provide many benefits to entrants (students and teachers), and to Contact: Lynn McDonald schools. Phone: (02) 6276 6449 Check website for 2012 Fax: (02) 6276 6641 applications. E-mail: Lynn.McDonald@csiro.auBiological http://www.organicschools.com.au/ Applications for the 2012 programFarmers of SubPrograms/LeaderSchoolsProgr will open in October 2011. GrantsAustralia am/tabid/207/Default.aspx award a minimum of $1000 retailOrganic School value of gardening goods.Gardens –Leader SchoolProgramBird Download the Application form Grants to preserve AustralianObservation ABEF 2011 vegetation and to its assist itsand wildlife.Conservation http://www.boca.org.au/about-Australia boca/downloadable- documents#anchor Call 1300305342 or email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Award/Grant Website/Contact Details CommentsColes School http://www.juniorlandcare.com.au/g Grants are up to $1000. LastGarden Grant rants-2/coles-grant round for 2011 is due Friday 5th August 2011.Community http://townsville.qld.gov.au/commu One-off grants up to $5000.Organisations nity/grants/Documents/CGP_Com Schools can apply for this grant ifGrants Program mOrg.pdf the project involves benefits for the wider community. Applications close: Last Friday of October of each year and Last Friday of March of each year.Environmental http://www.environment.gov.au/edu Currently under review.Education cation/programs/index.htmlGrantsErgon Energy http://www.ergon.com.au/communit Grants from $200 to $10,000.Envirofund y--and--our-network/community- Applications close 20 July. partnerships/envirofund Envirofund Secretariat Phone: 07 3228 7999 E-mail: email@example.comGambling http://www.olgr.qld.gov.au/grants/g One-off grants of up to $35,000Community cbf/index.shtml are allocated. The closing datesBenefit Fund for applications are 28 February, Call 1800 633 619 31 May, 31 August and 30 November. Schools must register as the legal entity while the Parents and Care givers Association must register as the sponsor organisation.GrantsLINK http://www.grantslink.gov.au/ A directory that has information about federal, state and local Call 1800 026 222 (toll free) government funding programs.Junior Landcare http://landcareonline.us1.list- Sign up to the Junior LandcareGrants manage.com/subscribe?u=c87493 newsletter to get updates of new 8162801405204f0d115&id=bc74ee funding opportunities. 36a5
Award/Grant Website/Contact Details CommentsM A Ingram http://www.statetrustees.com.au/st Indigenous Australian mammalsTrust Grants ate-trustees-australia- and birds. Up to $5000. Due 15 foundation/private-charitable-trusts April each year. Phone: (03) 9667 6740McCain School http://www.mccainveggiepatches.c Applications close 19 AugustVeggie Patches om/content/home/programinformati 2011. McCain is giving over on.aspx $500,000 worth of vegie patch equipment to primary schools.National http://www.schoolsfirst.edu.au/sf- Grants for partnerships betweenAustralia Bank award-categories/ school and community that canSchools First demonstrate improved educationalAwards outcomes. Awards range from $25,000 to $100,000. Applications close 29 July 2011.Open Garden http://www.opengarden.org.au/ Applications usually open in MayCommunity each year. A total of $10,000 isGrants Email firstname.lastname@example.org available for projects in Queensland.Optus https://communitygrants.optus.com Closing date for applications isCommunity .au/ 5pm (AEST), Friday 12 AugustGrants 2011. Call 1300 729 320 or email email@example.com us.com.auProject AWARE http://www.projectaware.org/project Further information about grantsFoundation /grants from September 2011.grants Email firstname.lastname@example.orgTownsville City http://www.townsville.qld.gov.au/co Townsville’s annual EnvironmentalCouncil mmunity/awards/Documents/Enviro Excellence & SustainabilityEnvironmental nmental%20Excellence%20and%2 Awards recognise environmentallySustainability 0Sustainability%20Awards%20201 sustainability contributions fromand Excellence 1%20Nomination%20Form.pdf schools and community groups.Awards
Healthy Habitat for SchoolsLand Management PlanA land management plan will help you to achieve your goals in creating a biodiverseschool yard. The Healthy Habitat team can help you to determine these, orrecommend a consultant to provide additional help.What is your biodiversity vision for your school?What is the school’s background in biodiversity projects?What water resources do you have in the school grounds?Town water Tank water Bore water River/creek water OtherIs the water supply reliable? Does it have good water quality? Does it meet thedemands of the school now and in the future?
MappingAs part of developing a clear plan for the property, satellite imagery and aerialphotography and overlays allow for monitoring of progress over time. Mappingassistance is available from the Healthy Habitat team.The following maps and overlays should be considered as part of your landmanagement plan: The base map is the aerial or satellite image. It will show the property boundary and natural features Current land use and infrastructure overlay Future draft plans for the property and proposed management actions.Regional ecosystemsThe geology of the area has influenced the development of the soils that arepresent. Certain plants are expected to grow on a particular combination of geology,landform and soil. These plant communities are called regional ecosystems (REs),and they are mapped across all of Queensland. They are a good indicator of whatwould have been present before European disturbance. They are an excellentguide for planning native plantings.If the school has the Lot number and Plan number or GPS coordinates for theirproperty they can access Regional Ecosystem and Remnant Maps and RegrowthVegetation Maps from the website: http://www.derm.qld.gov.au/wildlife-ecosystems/biodiversity/regional_ecosystems/introduction_and_status/regional_ecosystem_maps/index.php.These maps show code numbers such as 11.3.35. You can then look up the codeson the Regional Ecosystem website to get a description of the expected plants foryour area: http://www.derm.qld.gov.au/wildlife-ecosystems/biodiversity/regional_ecosystems/index.phpDescribe the soil of the school ground:Sand Clay LoamDescribe the colour of the soil:Black Brown Red White Grey YellowWhat position does the property occupy in the landscape?Flat plains Low hills High hills Tidal flatsBeach Coastal sand dune River or creek flats
If your school has any creeks, rivers or drainage lines, is there any erosion orbank stability issues?What are the native plant species on your school grounds? NATIVE PLANT AREA DENSITY (HIGH, COVERED MODERATE OR LOW)Do you have any pest animals on your property such as cane toads, feral pigs,wild dogs, feral cats or wild horses?
What are the dominant weeds on the property? WEED AREA DENSITY (HIGH, COVERED MODERATE OR LOW)Have you observed native fauna in the school grounds such as wallabies,quolls, possums or snakes? Are you aware of any threatened species foundon or near the school grounds?
Action PlanPlease fill out the tables below to form your action plan: WHAT ARE YOUR MANAGEMENT WHAT ARE THE ISSUES THAT MAY GOALS? PREVENT YOU REACHING THESE GOALS? (e.g. Reduce weeds and pests) (e.g identification of weeds)
APPROACH TO BE TAKEN(Describe all the steps required to reach your goals)
ACTION COMPLETION DATE PERSON RESPONSIBLEWhat order do the stepsneed to be? What peopleand resources can beutilised?
INFORMATION MANAGEMENT PERSON/GROUPS RESPONSIBLE(e.g. how will information be recordedso projects can be maintained andsustainable over time?)COMMUNICATION PERSON/GROUPS RESPONSIBLE(e.g. How will achievements becommunicated/promoted and celebratedto the school and wider community?)
Please fill out the evaluation table when the land management plan has beenimplemented: STRATEGY/ACTION ISSUES ACHIEVEMENTS IMPROVEMENTS/ ENCOUNTERED CHANGES