SINGLE PAYER HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS
Lynn A. Blewett, PhD
University of Minnesota
School of Public Health
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Single Payer Health Care Systems

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Presentation by Lynn Blewett to the Minnesota Medical Association on August 19, 2014

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Single Payer Health Care Systems

  1. 1. SINGLE PAYER HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS Lynn A. Blewett, PhD University of Minnesota School of Public Health Presentation to the Minnesota Medical Association August 19, 2014
  2. 2. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Overview • Overview of term “Single Payer” • Examples of Single Payer Health Care Systems around the world • Vermont proposal for Single Payer • A few pros/cons and a few comments…. 2 Thanks to Mary Cobb, SHADAC doctoral student, for her assistance
  3. 3. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Some Definitions Socialized Medicine: Medical and hospital services that are provided by a government and paid for by taxes. Single Payer Health Care System: Universal coverage through a single, publicly-financed insurance plan that provides comprehensive health care. Universal Health Care: System that ensures that all people obtain the health services they need without suffering financial hardship when paying for them (World Health Organization, 2014). 3
  4. 4. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Centralized Single Payer System • Concentrated Financing • Government is dominant payer • Funded primarily through taxes • Providers, hospitals can be mix of public and/or private • Universal access – No uninsured! • Minimum to no OOP spending • Private insurance is limited 4
  5. 5. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level A few more…. 5 • Government is the revenue collector – system organizers – generally one central authority • Core benefit package required but not all services covered (dental, vision, alternative medicine) • Most countries consider access to healthcare as a right (either legal or moral) • Patients can usually choose providers but generally some gatekeeping provided
  6. 6. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Variation in Single Payer Systems • Payment Models – price regulation, FFS, captitation and/or global budgets • Service Delivery – providers and facilities can be public or private sector, or some of each • Financing – general tax revenue or a specific earmarked tax (payroll tax is common), additional premiums if authorized • Private Supplement – some countries allow option to buy private insurance as a supplement or alternative to the national system but generally limited to what it can cover • Benefit Designs, Co-payment Requirements – these also vary, for services and pharmaceuticals 6
  7. 7. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level 7 COMPARING MODELS- FINANCING
  8. 8. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Four Financing Models 1. Canada Public Health Insurance Program 2. UK Public Health Service 3. Norway National Health Insurance 4. Germany Social Health Insurance 8 All could be considered a form of Single Payer • All provide universal coverage • All treat coverage as a right • Mostly publicly financed • Limited role of private health insurance
  9. 9. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Follow the Money: Canada Provincial income/sales taxes Province Any provider nationwide Any provider in province Any provider in network/plan Patient chooses/registers with a GP Public 70% Private 30% Provider Choice -65% buy sup coverage for non-covered services but no cost-sharing for covered services – mostly through employers -Premiums charged in 3 provinces -Providers mostly private -Provincial level benefit sets -Hospitals operate under global budgets Regionally-Administered Public Health Insurance
  10. 10. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level -11% buy Sup Ins for private facilities/elective surgery -No general cap for OOP -GP mostly private/hospitals public -GP as gatekeeper Follow the Money: England Payroll Tax-18% National Health Service Patient chooses and registers with GP Provider Choice Public 94% Private 6% National Health Service
  11. 11. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Follow the Money: Norway Central Government Taxes 4 Regional Health Authorities • Secondary/ Tertiary Care 19 Counties • PH/PH Dental 428 Municipalities • Primary Care Patient chooses and registers with GP Public 85% Private 15% Provider Choice National Health Insurance -10% Sup Ins mostly via employers for quicker access -Cost-sharing ceiling apx $350 yr. -GP private/hospital public -GP as gatekeeper -National benefit set -Per capital grants to cities
  12. 12. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Follow the Money: Germany Employee/er Payroll Tax 134 Private Sickness Funds Any provider in province Public 70% Private 30% Social Health Insurance Provider Choice -11% of population opt out of SHI and purchase private insurance -Sickness Funds can charge premiums -Buy-in to SHI for low-income/ unemployed -Individual Insurance Mandate -National benefit package
  13. 13. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level 13 Canada UK Norway Germany Single-Payerness Concentration of Financing (HHI)
  14. 14. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level 14 COMPARING MODELS- OUTCOMES
  15. 15. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Wait Times for Specialist Appointment Less than 4 mos. More than 4 mos. Canada Germany Norway United Kingdom USA
  16. 16. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Access to Doctor or Nurse When Sick or Needed Care Canada Germany Norway United Kingdom USA Same-Day or Next Day Apt Waited 6+ Days for apt
  17. 17. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Out-of-Pocket Costs in the Past Year-2013 (spent $1,000 U.S or more) Canada Germany Norway United Kingdom USA
  18. 18. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Health System Views-2013 Canada Germany Norway United Kingdom USA Half of population say fundamental change needed Works Well Fundamental Change
  19. 19. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level 19 VERMONT’S SINGLE-PAYER INITIATIVE
  20. 20. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Vermont: Green Mountain Care • Gov. Peter Shumlin campaigned on single-payer, 2010 • Law enacted in 2011; state to build system by 2017 • Set up exchange as required under ACA, plan to transition • Major aspects: - Funding (some new taxes, some from federal waivers) - Waivers for Medicaid, SCHIP, Medicare, and ACA - ERISA compliance (self-funded plans not included) 20
  21. 21. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level The Purpose of Green Mountain Care Provide comprehensive, affordable, high-quality, publicly- financed health care coverage for all Vermont residents regardless of income, assets, health status, or availability of other health coverage by: (1) providing incentives to residents to avoid preventable health conditions, promote health, and avoid unnecessary emergency room visits; (2) establishing innovative payment mechanisms to health care professionals, such as global payments; (3) encouraging the management of health services through the Blueprint for Health; and (4) reducing unnecessary administrative expenditures. 21
  22. 22. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level • Small population - 626,000 • One larger private insurer – BCBS covers 90% of enrollees in Exchange • High coverage rates already – 6.5% uninsured in 2012 – 3rd lowest uninsured rate in US • Generous public coverage program – Dr. Dynasaur: children up to 300% FPL; Pregnant women up to 200% FPL • History of progressive social policies and voting patterns Vermont is Unique 22
  23. 23. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level 23 SINGLE-PAYER PROS AND CONS
  24. 24. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level A Few Pros • Potential for cost control and lower admin/overhead costs • Can negotiate or set prices for drugs and services • Like all universal coverage models, has higher population coverage than current U.S. system • Relying on single source of revenue may encourage more rational, deliberate trade-offs between cost and quality/quantity (Glied, 2009) 24
  25. 25. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level A Few Cons • Political feasibility in US – polarized parties • Public perceptions/concerns of higher taxes, government control, excessive rationing, socialism • Potentially less financially-stable than a multi- payer universal coverage model potentially more dependent on fluctuations in economy • If financed with general taxation and global budgets, vulnerable to annual budget processes. 25
  26. 26. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Conclusions • Country financing and delivery models are unique • Yet one can find similar components in most systems • Other countries movement toward more local decision-making and control, less centralized authority • Few centralized single payer systems (UK) • Most systems developed over time with a focus on universal coverage as fundamental right of citizenship 26
  27. 27. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Resources Comparing Models: Commonwealth Fund. International Profiles of Health Care Systems, 2013. November 2013 http://www.commonwealthfund.org/~/media/Files/Publications/Fund%20Report/2013/Nov/1717_Thom son_intl_profiles_hlt_care_sys_2013_v2.pdf Karen Davis, Kristof Stremikis, David Squires, and Cathy Schoen. Commonwealth Fund. Mirror, Mirror, on the Wall: How the Performance of the U.S. Health Care System Compares Internationally. June 2104. http://www.commonwealthfund.org/~/media/files/publications/fund- report/2014/jun/1755_davis_mirror_mirror_2014.pdf World Health Organization. Health Systems: Health Systems Financing. http://www.who.int/healthsystems/topics/financing/en/ Glied, Sherry. “Single Payer as a Financing Mechanism.” Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law. 2009. http://jhppl.dukejournals.org/content/34/4/593.full.pdf+html Vermont: Owen Dyer. “America’s First Single-Payer System.” The BMJ (formerly the British Medical Journal). January 2014. ttp://www.bmj.com/content/348/bmj.g102 Sarah Kliff. Forget Obamacare. Vermont Wants to Bring Single Payer to America. Vox Media. April 2014. http://www.vox.com/2014/4/9/5557696/forget-obamacare-vermont-wants-to-bring-single-payer- to-america Nathan Blanchet and Ashley Fox. Prospective political analysis for policy design: Enhancing the political viability of single-payer health reform in Vermont. Health Policy. June 2013. https://www.clinicalkey.com/#!/ContentPlayerCtrl/doPlayContent/1-s2.0-S016885101300064X
  28. 28. Click to edit Master title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level www.shadac.o rg@shadac Lynn A. Blewett, PhD Director, SHADAC Professor, Dept. of Health Policy and Management University of Minnesota blewe001@umn.edu 612-624-4802 Contact Information
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