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Research designs


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  • 2. Research design spells out the basic strategies that researchers adopt to develop evidence that is accurate and interpretable. It incorporates some of the most important methodologic decisions that researchers make.
  • 3. Table 1. Dimensions of Research Designs Dimension Design Major Features Degree of structure structured Design is specified before data are collected flexible Design evolves during data collection Type of Group Comparisons Between-subjects Subjects in groups being compared are different people Within-subjects Subjects in groups being compared are the same people at different times or in different conditions Time frame Cross-sectional Data are collected at one point in time Longitudinal Data are collected at two or more points in time over an extended period Control over independent variable Experimental Manipulation of independent variable, control group, randomization Quasi-experimental Manipulation of independent variable, but no randomization or no control group Pre-experimental Manipulation of independent variable, no randomization or control group, limited control over extraneous variables Nonexperimental No manipulation of independent variables
  • 4. Continuation of Table 1 Measurement of independent and dependent variables Retrospective Study begins with dependent variable and looks backward for cause or antecedent Prospective Study begins with independent variable and looks forward for the effect Dimension Design Major Features
  • 5. Table 2. Experimental Designs NAME OF DESIGN PREINTER- VENTION DATA? GROUPS FEATURES Posttest –only (after-only) No Between One data collection point after the intervention; not appropriate for measuring change Pretest-posttest (before-after) Yes Between Data collection both before and after the intervention; appropriate for measuring change; determine differences between groups (experimental) and change within groups (quasi-experimental) Solomon four group For some subjects Between Data collection before and after the intervention for one experimental and one control group, but after only for a second experimental and control group, to assess pretest effects
  • 6. Continuation of Table 2 Factorial Optional Between Experimental manipulation of more than one independent variable; permits a test of main effects for each manipulated variable and interaction effects for combinations of manipulated variables Crossover/repeated measure Optional Within Subjects are exposed to all treatments but are randomly assigned to different ordering of treatments; subjects serve as their own control
  • 7. Group Data Collection ! Before ! After Experimental ---with pretest x x Experimental ---without pretest x Control ---with pretest x x Control ---without pretest x Table 3. Solomon four- group experimental design
  • 8. Table 5. Overview of Qualitative Research Traditions Discipline Domain Research Tradition Area of Inquiry Anthro- pology Culture Ethnography Holistic view of culture Ethnoscience Mapping of the cognitive world of a culture Psychology/ Philosophy Lived Experience Phenomenology Experiences of individuals within their lifeworld Hermeneutics Interpretations and meanings of individuals’ experiences Psychology Behavior and Events Ethology Behavior observed over time in natural context Ecologic Psychology Behavior as influenced by the environment Sociology Social Settings Grounded Theory Social structural processes within a social setting Ethnomethodology Manner by which shared agreement is achieved In social settings Symbolic interaction Manner by which people make sense of social interactions
  • 9. Continuation of Table 5 Discipline Socio- linguistics Domain Human communication Research Tradition Discourse Analysis Area of Inquiry Forms and rules of conversation History Past behavior, Events and conditions Historical analysis Description and interpretation of historical events
  • 10. Table 6 . Examples of Integration Policies Type Example of Question for Quantitative Component Example of Question for Qualitative Component Evaluation What is the level of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness is outsourcing in a restaurant business as perceived by customers? What problems of implementation ensued between the contracting parties? Outcomes research What effect does networking of various multivitamins have to the saleability of drugs available in pharmacies? How do residents of Dampas District deal with multi-level marketers? Needs assessments What percentage of Haitian immigrants have unmet unmet social needs, and what are the highest-priority needs? What are the barriers that prevent Haitian immigrants from getting needed public services? Survey How prevalent is franchising in Tagbilaran City? ---
  • 11. A little exercise…. • A researcher investigates the relationship between the level of economic disadvantage of schooled children and the frequency and content of child-initiated communications with the teachers. Which is the independent variable? Which is dependent? Would you classify the research as basically experimental or correlational, or could both designs be used? Why do you say so?
  • 12. • If you study how vendors of Talibon view their businesses and how they prepared and managed transactions, what qualitative research do you resort to?