Neo marxist perspectives of crime
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Neo marxist perspectives of crime






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    Neo marxist perspectives of crime Neo marxist perspectives of crime Presentation Transcript

    • Neo-Marxist perspectives of crime
      • By Chris Thompson
    • Neo-Marxist perspectives
      • Neo-Marxist approaches are otherwise known as Radical Criminology
      • This approach starts with Marxist ideas but says it’s far too simplistic as there are wider cultural factors which lead to recidivism
      • Taylor, Walton and Young (1973) merged Marxism with interactionism and labelling (these latter two areas in effect cultural)
    • Neo-Marxist- ‘full social theory of deviance’
      • Taylor, Walton and Young (1973) created a new model of crime which they termed a ‘fully social theory of deviance’
      • This model locates crime as being a product of the social system the person is immersed in
      • They identified 7 characteristics evident in their ‘full social theory of deviance’, which are evident in Stuart Hall’s work
    • Stuart Hall – Policing the crisis
      • Stuart Hall’s ‘Policing the Crisis’ is a study of a moral panic over ‘mugging’ in the 1970s
      • In the 1970s a moral panic over mugging happened in Britain
      • Mugging is a concept which was imported from the US in the 1970s and tended to refer to being robbed by black men
      • During the 1970s several newspapers repeatedly reported incidents of mugging
    • Hall –’a crisis of capitalism’
      • This moral panic was built upon the idea of a collective fear of an ‘enemy within’
      • Stuart Hall’s ‘full social theory of deviance’ looked at the idea of the Black mugger as a scapegoat for other social ills of the period
      • Between 1945 and the late 1960s Britain had prospered with full employment and improved living standards.
      • However the 1970s brought about an economic decline – a ‘crisis of capitalism’
    • Black Muggers
      • During this period rapidly rising global oil prices brought high unemployment and a fall in living standards
      • Wave after wave of strike action brought about civil unrest and the subsequent challenge to social order and the power of the state
      • Stuart Hall’s point is by making the Black mugger someone to fear, it solidified a fractured UK society around the state
    • Societal reaction
      • Subsequently society allowed the state to randomly stop and search Black youths
      • This labelling of Black youths led to a process of deviancy amplification
      • Therefore Hall’s idea are more comprehensive as they merge labelling, societal reaction, moral panics and deviancy amplification into a complete ‘social theory of deviance’
      • Another example is Paul Gilroy’s: ‘There Ain’t no Black in the Union Jack’
      • Gilroy rejected the view that Blacks’ resorted to crime due to poor socialisation, he said it was a result of ethnic minorities defending themselves against an unjust society
      • Gilroy saw the resultant riots in Toxteth and Southall in 1981 as political acts
      • The riots did remove of the ‘sus’ laws brought in by 1970s ‘muggings’
    • Synoptic
      • Hall & Gilroy’s perspective is a neo-Marxist one because it examines the influence of culture on law & order policies
      • Remember neo-Marxists cut the superstructure into two
      • Gilroy & Hall’s approach emphasises a crisis of capitalism and how political society used civil society (particularly the media) to get its own way
    • Critics
      • Some critics point out that some laws like traffic laws cannot be seen as being created by a capitalist class
      • Lea & Young – Left Realists say Hall’s ideas say nothing about the victims of crime
    • Neo-Marxist perspectives
      • By Chris Thompson