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SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
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SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

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  • 1. GCSE sociology revision<br />
  • 2. 1. Crime and Deviance<br />Defining crime and deviance<br />Rules, social order and social control<br />Explanations for crime<br />Measuring crime<br />Age and crime<br />Gender and crime<br />Ethnicity and crime<br />Locality and crime<br />
  • 3. a.Defining crime and deviance<br />Crime = law breaking<br />Deviance = not conforming to norms and values<br />Deviance is socially constructed = depends on time (in <br /> history), Place, culture, who doing it etc<br />
  • 4. b. Rules, social order and social control<br />Conformity = fitting in/obedience<br /> = social order/predictable<br />Sanctions <br /><ul><li>Positive = rewards
  • 5. Negative = punishment</li></ul>Social control<br />Formal = written rules/laws = agencies carry this out (police, courts, teachers etc) = punishment<br />Informal = unwritten = social pressure (ridicule/ignore/ gossip)<br />
  • 6. c.Explanations for criminal behaviour<br />4. Subculture<br />gang<br />Peer pressure<br />Frustration<br />Source of identity<br />Belonging<br />Rebellion <br />5. Marxist<br />Capitalism = greed<br />Media advertising<br />Jealousy/frustration<br />6.Labelling<br />Stereotyping<br />Self concept<br />Selective policing<br />Biased courts<br />Media amplification<br />1.Family background<br />Socialisation<br />Role models<br />Lack of discipline<br />Neighbourhood<br />2.Opportunity Structure<br />Career path<br />Role models<br />3. Deprivation<br />Poverty<br />Jealousy/frustration<br />
  • 7. d. Measuring crime<br />Official crime figures = annual/Home Office<br />Help police target resources/spot trends/advise public<br />Problems of non-detection/non-reporting/non-recording<br />NON-REPORTING = trivial/no trust/fear of reprisal/private matter<br />Victim Surveys = people list crimes against them<br />Overcome problem of non-reporting<br />Reveal DARK FIGURE OF CRIME = lots more than official figures<br />Self-Report Studies = people list crimes they have done<br />Show that m/c and females commit more crime<br />Challenges stereotype<br />Problems – exaggeration/under-reporting<br />
  • 8. e. Age and crime<br />Why are youth seen as a problem?<br />Media portrayal = folk devil<br />Media moral panic (hoodies)<br />Seen as disrespectful, trouble ASBO, acohol/drugs, knife crime<br />Strategies<br />ASBOS<br />Dispersal orders<br />Tagging<br />Fining parents<br />Young people commit most crime<br />Youth crime = juvenile delinquency/delinquents<br />Factors causing youth crime<br />Peer pressure<br />Frustration<br />Seek excitement<br />Poor discipline<br />Labelled by society and treated unfairly<br />
  • 9. f. Gender and crime<br />More males in prison<br />Reasons why less girls involved in crime:<br />Gender role socialisation<br />Parental expectations (& control of girls)<br />Less opportunities for girls<br />Macho image/peer pressure = boys<br />Stereotyping and labelling = girls let off (chivalry)<br />Why more girls getting involved in crime?<br />Less chivalry<br />Changing roles = more opportunities<br />More women in poverty (with less male support)<br />
  • 10. h. Crime and ethnicity<br />More Afro-Caribbean men in prison<br />Why are so many in prison?<br />Unemployment and poverty = frustration<br />Racism in society = unemployment<br />Poor socialisation and values (Cultural = attitudes/lifestyle)<br />Police racism/biased courts = stereotyping and more arrests<br />
  • 11. i. Crime by locality<br />Less crime in rural areas because:<br />Less poverty<br />Less overcrowding<br />More neighbourly/sense of community<br />People keep an eye on each other (informal social control)<br />Strangers/outsiders stand out<br />Better neighbourhood watch groups<br />

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