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    SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource Presentation Transcript

    • AS Sociology Unit 1 (SCLY1) ‘ Wealth, Poverty and Welfare’ This module is worth 40% of your AS grade
    • Topics:
      • Defining poverty
      • Measuring poverty
      • Who are the poor?
      • Cultural explanations of poverty
      • Structural explanations of poverty
      • The functionalist explanation of poverty
      • Solutions to poverty
      • Defining and measuring wealth and income
      • The distribution of wealth and income
      • The post-war welfare state (1945-1979)
      • The New Right welfare state (1979-1997)
      • The New Labour welfare state (1997-2010)
      • The Coalition government welfare state (2010+)
      • Welfare pluralism
      • Revision and exam preparation
    • Topic 1: Defining Poverty (AO1)
      • A subjective term:
      • Are people with large mortgages poor because they owe thousands of pounds?
      • If you are ‘overdrawn’ are you poor?
      • Are you poor if you can’t afford to go clubbing this weekend?
      • Are you poor if you can’t afford a car?
      • Are all homeless people poor?
    • Definitions of Poverty (AO1)
      • Absolute : lack of basic needs such as food, water and shelter.
      • Relative : being poor in comparison to the majority of people in your society.
      • Multiple deprivation AKA consensual : lacking in a number of things (not just money) which are agreed upon by people other than the sociologist.
      • Social exclusion : the inability to fully participate in society, caused by low income, unemployment, poor housing, bad neighbourhoods.
      • Environmental poverty : when the local area is either polluted, destroyed or dangerous.
    • Problems of Using an ‘Absolute’ Definition:
      • What is a basic need? 1 glass of water? 2 litres? Food that fills you up? Food that contains essential nutrients? The amounts of food and water depend on age and climate.
      • Ignores social needs (friendship, hobbies)
      • It is a measure of destitution , not poverty (according to this definition, you’d have to be in danger of death to be poor!)
      • It hides the extent of relative poverty – the numbers of people in absolute poverty are very low in the UK – but thousands of people experience relative poverty. If sociologists use the absolute definition, then the government may think that poverty is declining and nothing needs to be done.
      • It is a measure of inequality , not poverty . E.g.. it is ‘the norm’ to have a family car, but lacking a car doesn’t mean you are poor.
      • Can’t compare poverty in different countries – the norm will always be different.
      • Could inflate/exaggerate the true extent of poverty – using this definition means poverty will never disappear in any modern capitalist society.
      Problems of Using the ‘Relative’ Definition of Poverty (AO2)
    •  
    • Topic 2: Measuring Poverty (AO1)
      • Rowntree – measured absolute poverty
      • Calculated basic needs
      • Made a total weekly cost
      • This becomes the poverty line
      • Those below poverty line are poor
      • Also distinguished between primary and secondary poverty
    • Criticisms of Rowntree’s Concept (AO2)
      • Different shops charge different prices!
      • Rowntree calculated costs of cheapest nutritious foods – not many people have knowledge of nutritious value of all foods.
      • Townsend – measured relative poverty
      • Social surveys, large scale, geographically representative
      • Called his survey a deprivation index
      • Asked respondents if they lacked things such as:
      • Warm waterproof coat
      • Use of bath and/or shower
      • A cooked breakfast each morning
      • A weekly Sunday joint
      • Birthday party for children
      • Those who lacked 4+ items were at risk of relative poverty
      Measuring Poverty (AO1)
    • Criticisms of Townsend’s Concept (AO2)
      • Are vegetarians poor?
      • Questions are subjective
      • Ignores the fact that some people choose not to have certain things.
      • Mack and Lansley – studied multiple deprivation
      • Provided list of household items
      • Asked volunteers to rank these in order of importance
      • This is called the consensual approach because the sociologists do not decide which items are important – a group of people agree on this instead.
      • Those lacking a number of the most important items due to lack of money are said to be experiencing multiple deprivation.
      Measuring Poverty (AO1)
    • The Millennium Survey (AO1)
      • Carried out by Bristol University researchers
      • Aimed to measure the extent of both poverty and social exclusion
      • Three million adults and 400,000 children are underfed in the UK
      • Nine million people can’t afford good housing.
      • 10m adults and 1m children can’t participate in leisure activities.
      • They believe the government should do more to help the poor.
    • The Social Exclusion Unit (SEU) (AO1)
      • Social Exclusion Unit – set up by the New Labour government to monitor and reduce the amount of social exclusion in the UK
      • But the government never put a figure on how many people are ‘socially excluded’ – instead, the Unit looked at individual indicators of exclusion (numbers of unemployed people, homeless people, teenage pregnancies etc)
    • Problems of using official statistics to measure wealth and/or poverty (AO1 and AO2)
      • No overall figures are given
      • Can’t look at changes in individuals’ lives
      • The sample could change each year – this may affect the amount of poverty found
      • A Marxist might argue that the government will only publish positive findings!
      • Official figures on wealth are hard to obtain – some sociologists have to rely on values of estates left by the deceased.
    • Topic 3: Who are the Poor? (AO1)
      • Anyone could experience poverty at some point in their life.
      • However, the following social groups are most at risk from poverty:
        • Women
        • Children
        • Ethnic minorities
        • The elderly
        • The unemployed
        • Those with disabilities
        • The working class
        • Lone parents
    • Reasons why Women may be Poor (AO1)
      • Low pay – women earn 83% of the average male wage – this could be due to patriarchy in the workplace (the glass ceiling effect)
      • More likely than men to work part time or take career breaks to raise children
      • May go without themselves to provide for/treat their children
      • May have to pay for childcare out of wages
      • Overall, feminists believe in the feminisation of poverty.
    • Reasons why Children may be Poor (AO1)
      • Living in a lone parent family – only one wage earner
      • Both parents may be unemployed – benefit rates are low
      • Child Benefit does not cover cost of raising children!
    • Reasons why some Minority Ethnic Groups are Poor (AO1)
      • High chance of unemployment due to employer discrimination
      • Likely to be low paid, possibly due to low educational qualifications
      • Language barriers – problem with application forms etc
      • Religious beliefs may prevent some types of jobs/shift patterns
      • Less likely to stay on at school/go to uni (possibly due to racism) and therefore under-qualified for top jobs.
    • Reasons why the elderly may be poor (AO1)
      • State pensions are low
      • Unemployment due to employer discrimination (ageism)
      • Cost of care (some people sell their homes to pay for retirement home care)
    • Reasons why the Unemployed may be Poor (AO1)
      • State benefits are low
      • Low educational qualifications may prevent people from finding work
      • Immediate gratification – may not have savings to fall back on
    • Reasons why some People with Disabilities may be Poor (AO1)
      • If unable to work, state benefits are low
      • Unemployment due to employer discrimination (‘disability-ism’!)
      • Extra costs for health care/equipment
    • Reasons why the Working Class are Poor (AO1)
      • Low pay – may only receive minimum wage
      • Immediate gratification – may not have savings to fall back on
      • Jobs may be temporary/unstable resulting in unemployment
      • Low educational qualifications prevent people from taking up high paid jobs
      • Only one wage-earner in household
      • May be reliant on state benefits, which are low
      • Cost of childcare
      • 9/10 lone parents are female – women are paid less then men
      Reasons why Lone Parents may be Poor (AO1)
    • Task:
      • Produce a summary table to consolidate your learning, using the following headings :
      Social group Why are they likely to be poor?
    • Topic 4: Cultural Explanations of Poverty
      • Sasha is 19.
      • She has a three-year-old son and a baby daughter.
      • She lives in a flat provided by the council, in Plymouth
      • She does not work because she has to look after the children
      • Therefore she receives income support, housing benefit and council tax benefit
      • The children’s father does not come to see them very often
      • Sasha is struggling to afford healthy food and toys for the children
      • Why is she poor?
    • Possible answers
      • Cultural explanations
      • Because she chose to have children too young
      • Because she wont get a job
      • Because she isn't budgeting properly
      • Because she isn't with her children’s father
      • Structural explanations
      • Her benefits aren’t high enough
      • She isn't getting support for child care
      • She cant go back to education due to lack of child care
    • What is a cultural explanation of poverty? (AO1)
      • Objective: To gain an understanding of cultural explanations of deprivation and poverty
      • One that blames the existence and persistence of poverty on the individual’s culture/behaviour/way of life.
      • Also known as:
        • Right-wing explanations
        • Dependency explanations
      • The New Right perspective and the Culture of Poverty theory agrees with this view.
    • Lewis (1968) – The Culture of Poverty Theory (AO1)
      • Objective: To gain an understanding of cultural explanations of deprivation and poverty
      • Studied a poor community in South America
      • Found their way of life was keeping them in poverty
      • Children were taught different norms and values from mainstream society:
      • ‘ Fatalism ’ – acceptance of their situation, rather trying to change it
      • ‘ Immediate gratification ’ – spend any money they had immediately – did not save up for the future or stay on at school.
      • Therefore, poor children grew up to be poor adults, who then brought up the next generation of poor children…
    • Lewis’ description of the poor (AO1)
      • “ they have a low level of literacy and education”
      • They “make very little use of banks, hospitals, department stores, museums or art galleries”
      • “ hatred of the police, mistrust of government”
    • Create your ‘culture of poverty’ diagram here
    • Lewis (1968) – The Culture of Poverty Theory Criticisms (AO2)
      • Can this study be applied to modern day UK?
      • How do you measure/study norms and values? – could be a subjective interpretation.
      • Ignores the lack of jobs and lack of education at that time
    • The New Right Perspective: Charles Murray (AO1)
      • A political and sociological perspective
      • Associated with ‘Thatcherism’ from the 1980s
      • A ‘right wing’ approach:
        • capitalism is the best way to run the economy
        • People should be allowed to make as much money as they like
        • The government should not interfere
        • ‘ lazy’ people should not be dependent on government benefits!
      • Charles Murray – US sociologist that came to UK to see if we have an ‘underclass’
    • The Underclass Theory (AO1)
      • Objective: To gain an understanding of cultural explanations of deprivation and poverty
      • Most poverty is caused by the behaviour of the individual
      • There is no real reason for people in the UK to be poor – we have free education and lots of available jobs
      • There is a section of the population, however, who don’t want to work.
      • These are the underclass
      • 3 indicators of the underclass: illegitimacy, violent crime, economic inactivity
      • In other words, unmarried mothers and unemployed males have only themselves to blame if they are poor.
    • Wider reading opportunity!
      • Murray’s original articles plus articles from other sociologists about poverty can be downloaded here for free!
      • http://www.civitas.org.uk/books/openAccess.php
      • Charles Murray and the Underclass
      • Underclass + 10
    • Quotes from Murray (AO1)
      • He is “ a visitor from a plague area come to see whether the disease is spreading”
      • Young men who don’t work are “barbarians”
      • “ in communities without fathers, the kids tend to run wild”
      • Describing his theory: “it is all horribly sexist, I know. It also happens to be true”.
    • Criticisms of Murray: (from the online article) (AO2)
      • Gallie : no proof that the unemployed have different attitudes towards work than the employed – the underclass does not exist
      • Kempson : “ people who live on low incomes are not an underclass. They have aspirations just like others in society: they want a job; a decent home; and an income that is enough to pay the bills with a little to spare”.
      • Alcock : Murray compares families today to a ‘golden Victorian era’ which didn’t actually exist – there have always been criminals and births outside of marriage!
    • General criticisms of Murray (AO2)
      • Ignores the lack of jobs in some reasons – people may not be unemployed out of choice!
      • ‘ Victim blaming’ – poverty could be the fault of society/the government
      • The assumption that ‘marriage is best’ is subjective.
    • Topic 5: Structural Explanations of Poverty
      • Objective: To gain an understanding of structural explanations of deprivation and poverty
      • A structural explanation blames the existence and persistence of poverty on wider society, or the government
      • Also known as:
        • Left wing explanations
        • Societal explanations
      • Marxists, social democrats and the cycle of deprivation theory all agree with this view.
    • The Marxist View of Poverty (AO1)
      • Objective: To gain an understanding of structural explanations of deprivation and poverty
      • Poverty is caused by capitalism
      • Poverty is inevitable under capitalism
      • All the proletariat are poor
      • The bourgeoisie pay the proletariat low wages in order to maximise profit.
      • The proletariat suffer from false consciousness, thinking their wages are fair and reasonable.
    • Criticisms of the Marxist view of Poverty (AO2)
      • Objective: To gain an understanding of structural explanations of deprivation and poverty
      • Not all proletariat are poor – what about footballers, actors and CEOS?
      • Marxists are looking at inequality, not poverty – and they are bound to find inequality in capitalist states
      • Assumes poverty will disappear under communism – but many communist states have severe poverty
      • Ignores recent policies designed to help the working class - National Minimum wage, tax credits etc
    • The Social Democratic View of Poverty (AO1)
      • Objective: To gain an understanding of structural explanations of deprivation and poverty
      • A political and sociological perspective
      • Believes capitalism is acceptable with government intervention
      • Government should provide range of benefits for the poor
      • The rich should pay high taxes to help the poor
      • Key sociologist: Frank Field
    • Field’s theory on the existence of poverty (AO1)
      • Objective: To gain an understanding of structural explanations of deprivation and poverty
      • Poverty persists because of the poverty trap.
      • Defined as: “a situation whereby people are financially worse off if they take a job due to loss of benefits, cost of transport and cost of child care ”
      • For example, if a lone parent takes a job at £6 per hour she will have to pay a child minder, pay for school meals, pay to travel to work and lose her benefits
      • So working would actually make her poorer!
    • Criticisms of Field’s Theory on the Existence of Poverty (AO2)
      • Objective: To gain an understanding of structural explanations of deprivation and poverty
      • Since Field’s theory was published, New Labour pledged to abolish the poverty trap
        • Tax credits now exist
        • Sure start provides some free nursery places for 3-4 year olds
      • Murray would say that Field ignores the fact that there shouldn’t be lone parents in the first place, and that some people just don’t want a job.
    • The Cycle of Deprivation Theory (AO1)
      • Objective: To gain an understanding of structural explanations of deprivation and poverty
      • Coates and Silburn (1970)
      • Studied St Ann’s in Nottingham – a ‘slum’ area
      • Found children were born into poverty (as per culture of poverty theory) but the poor had the same norms and values as mainstream society
      • Poverty was caused by low pay, lack of jobs, low quality schools and poor housing
      • Society is to blame for poverty, not the individual.
    • Create your ‘Cycle of Deprivation’ diagram here: Now explain the difference between the culture of poverty and the cycle of deprivation:
    • Criticisms of the Cycle of Deprivation Theory (AO2)
      • Objective: To gain an understanding of structural explanations of deprivation and poverty
      • Can poverty really be blamed on a person’s surroundings?
        • All schools inspected by Ofsted – poor schools are closed down
        • Minimum wage and tax credits should prevent poverty
      • Assumes people have no free will to change their situation
    •  
    • Topic 6: The Functionalist Explanation of Poverty (AO1)
      • Objective: To gain an understanding of structural explanations of deprivation and poverty
      • Herbert Gans (1971)
      • Poverty exists and persists because it is functional!
      • Poverty performs 13 functions – some for individuals and some for society
      • Examples:
      • Poverty creates jobs for the middle classes – police officers, social workers and such like
      • Poverty helps the economy - out-of-date food, last-season clothes and old cars are all bought by the poor!
      • Poverty ensures that all jobs are filled in society – the poor will take up dull/dangerous/dirty jobs that no one else wants!
    • Task:
      • List other possible functions of poverty here:
      • How can we use Davis and Moore’s study?
    • Wider reading opportunity!
      • Read the original article by Gans at:
      • www.sociology.org.uk/as4p3.pdf
      • ‘ perhaps the most significant fact about poverty research is that it is being carried out entirely by middle-class researchers who differ – in class, culture and political power – from the people they are studying’ (Gans, 1973).
    • The Functionalist Explanation of Poverty: Criticisms (AO2)
      • Poverty is NOT particularly functional for those experiencing it!
      • Murray would say that the underclass do not help the economy – instead they claim benefits whilst committing crime!
    • Topic 7: Solutions to Poverty
      • Each sociological perspective has its own ideas as to how poverty can be solved…
      • Without looking back at your notes, write down the 6 theories of why poverty exists:
      • Culture of poverty
      • New Right – underclass
      • Marxist
      • Social democratic
      • Cycle of deprivation
      • Functionalist
    • Culture of Poverty solution (AO1)
      • Educate the poor – teach them mainstream norms of values such as hard work, academic success and deferred gratification.
    • However…
      • All children are taught norms and values at school, so why does poverty still exist?
    • New Right (Murray’s) Solution (AO1)
      • Eliminate ALL benefits for unmarried women
      • This will force women who want children to get married first
      • They will only choose men who will be good earners/providers
      • So barbarian males must find suitable jobs
      • Access to regular sex will ‘calm them down’
      • And they will have no time for crime!
      • Overall, there will be no more illegitimacy/violent crime/refusal to work, and therefore no more underclass!
    • However…
      • This idea means single mothers and their children could potentially starve to death!
      • Should we ‘force’ people into marriage?
      • What about divorced people?
      • A nuclear family with an employed male head could still be poor!
    • The Marxist solution (AO1)
      • Poverty is caused by capitalism
      • So simply abolish capitalism, and poverty will disappear!
      • To do this:
        • The working class must realise they are being exploited
        • They will then ‘unite and fight’
        • Bourgeoisie will be overthrown
        • Capitalism will be replaced by communism
        • In a communist society, everyone is equal, so there can’t be any poverty!
    • However…
      • Why is there so much poverty in modern communist countries?
    • The Social Democratic Solution (AO1)
      • Social democrats see social policy as important when combating poverty.
      • Social policy: government laws, acts or initiatives that affect people’s lives
      • There are social policies on benefits, housing, employment, education, families and welfare services.
      • Field would say that more generous, universal benefits (those available to all, regardless of income) would eradicate the poverty trap, enable people to work, and thus prevent poverty.
    • Has New Labour done this? (AO1)
      • National Minimum Wage introduced, and increased each year.
      • Tax credits introduced (so that those on low incomes effectively get some of their tax back)
      • Sure Start set up for nursery places/child care
      • Winter fuel payments for the elderly
    • However…
      • If poverty can be solved by social policy, why does it still exist???
    • The Cycle of Deprivation Solution
      • Again, social policy plays a key role in eliminating poverty
      • Educating young people and encouraging further and higher education should break the cycle
    • However…
      • People experiencing a cycle of deprivation are least likely to go to university due to fear of debt
      • Some graduates today are poor/unemployed
    • The Functionalist Solution (AO1)
      • Poverty is functional.
      • So no solution is needed!
    • However…
      • This doesn’t really help poor people!
    • Debate Time: Who is Right?
      • In teams, you be representing the different perspectives on poverty
      • You must debate:
        • Why does poverty exist today?
        • What should we do about it?
      • How wealthy are these celebs???
      Measuring Wealth and Income (AO1)
    • Answers (from the 2010 Times Rich List)
      • Simon Cowell - £165 million
      • Her Majesty the Queen - £290 million
      • Hugh Grant - £40 million
      • Lord Sugar - £730 million
      • Michael Owen - £40 million
      • Amy Winehouse - £5 million
      • J K Rowling - £519 million
    • Mini Test:
      • Define wealth
      • What are the two types of wealth?
      • Define income
      • What are the two types of income?
      • Give one example of being paid ‘in kind’
      • Name one survey used to establish levels of wealth and/or income
      • Suggest two problems faced by sociologists when measuring a person’s wealth
      • Give one example of a possession which is problematic to quantify/value when measuring wealth
    • Topic 8: Defining and Measuring Wealth and Income (AO1)
      • Wealth : “the ownership of property, shares, savings and other assets”
      • 2 types of wealth:
      • Marketable – any asset that can be sold (e.g. a car)
      • Non-marketable – something you own but can’t sell (e.g. a pension)
      • Income : a flow of payment, in cash or ‘in kind’ (e.g. free meals at work)
      • Two types:
      • Gross income: all sources of income before deductions. Includes:
            • Earned income (a salary)
            • Unearned income (tax credits etc)
      • b ) Disposable income : gross income minus tax/national insurance deductions
      Defining and Measuring Wealth and Income (AO1)
    • Defining and Measuring Wealth and Income (AO1)
      • Expenditure and Food Survey (EFS) – is sent to around 7,000 households in the UK. The answers provided reveal information on expenditure on housing, goods and services, and food. Figures explore expenditure on a daily weekly and monthly basis. The answers are analysed against the size of household income over time and geographical location.
      • The Family Resources Survey (FRS) operates in a very similar way.
      • These results can be used by the government to establish levels of income and inequality; and, to identify areas in the country that are most deprived.
    • Problems of Measuring Wealth (AO1)
      • Objective: To gain an understanding of the problems associated with measuring ‘wealth’
      • Concealment of assets
      • If using a social survey, respondents may lie about how wealthy they are.
      • They may be suspicious about the sociologist (are they working for the government?)
      • Assets may be concealed in off-shore bank accounts!
      • Bank accounts can be opened in someone else’s name.
      • Fluctuating value of assets
      • Stocks and shares could be worth different amounts on different days
      • How do you put a value on a ‘priceless’ painting?
      • House prices rise and fall
      • Social desirability
      • Those with no/little wealth may pretend they have savings to avoid the stigma associated with poverty
      • The Times Rich List:
      • Updated annually
      • Covers richest people in Britain
      • Admits these are only estimates
      • Researchers can’t have access to bank accounts!
      • So will sociologists ever know the true extent of wealth among individuals or in society overall?
      Problems of Measuring Wealth (AO1)
    • What is happening?
    • Topic 9: the distribution of wealth and income
      • There is an unequal distribution of wealth and income in the UK
      • The richest 10% of people own 90% of the wealth
      • 90% of the richest people are male…
      • How would a functionalist explain this?
      • A Marxist?
      • A feminist?
      • A New Right theorist?
    • Topic 10: The Post-war Welfare State (1945 – 1979)
      • What is meant by ‘welfare’?
      • The overall well-being of a person or a society
      • What is a ‘welfare state’?
      • A society in which those in power (usually the government) are responsible for the well-being of the citizens and therefore usually provide a range of services such as health care and education.
    • The Creation of the UK Welfare State (AO1)
      • Objective: To gain an understanding of the importance of the creation of the Welfare State
      • The Beveridge report 1942
      • Beveridge (an MP) conducted a report on the well-being of UK citizens.
      • He found there were ‘5 giant evils’ affecting the UK:
        • Want – poverty
        • Ignorance – lack of education
        • Squalor – poor housing
        • Idleness – unemployment
        • Disease – lack of affordable health care
    • The 5 Giant Evils and the Role of Social Policy (AO1)
      • Objective: To gain an understanding of the importance of the creation of the Welfare State
      • Want – solved by national insurance system
      • Ignorance – solved by 1944 Education Act
      • Squalor – solved by new council housing
      • Idleness – solved by full (male) employment using Keynesian economics and high taxation
      • Disease – solved by introducing the NHS, making treatment ‘free at the point of use’
    • The Post-war Welfare State (1945 – 1979) (AO1)
      • Objective: To gain an understanding of the importance of the creation of the Welfare State
      • Labour government took up all of Beveridge’s proposals
      • This period dominated by a left-wing/social democratic approach to welfare:
      • Able-bodied males expected to work – jobs created by government if needed
      • High taxation funded the free education and health care
      • Benefits mainly universal
    • Advantages of Universal Benefits (AO1 and AO2)
      • Objective: To gain an understanding of the importance of the creation of the Welfare State and the provision of universal benefits
      • No stigma /shame attached to claiming
      • High take-up, meaning many people have higher levels of affluence.
      • No need to waste money employing an administrator to see who is eligible
    • However…
      • Objective: To gain an understanding of the importance of the creation of the Welfare State
      • Universal benefits cost a lot, resulting in high taxation levels (up to 50% during post-war era)
      • Could mean some people claim benefits they don’t really need (should a millionaire be allowed to claim child benefit?)
      • E.g. – In December 2010, Lord Sugar was given the Winter Fuel Payment (£200). He was not allowed to give it back, despite being a multi-millionaire…
    • The Cereal-packet Post-war Family
    • Criticisms of the Post-war Welfare State (AO2)
      • Women expected/encouraged to ‘return to their rightful place in the home’ after the war – as a housewife. Could be seen as patriarchal.
      • The Royal Commission on Population reported in 1949 that immigrants of 'good stock' would be welcomed to Britain ( ethnocentric language).
      • Widespread racial discrimination in society after mass immigration from West Indies – e.g. council houses had waiting list so hardly any new UK citizens qualified.
      • By the 1970s welfare expenditure was very high, leading to criticisms from the Conservatives.
    • Topic 10: The New Right Welfare State (1979 – 1997)
      • Election of the ‘Thatcher’ government in 1979
      • Major changes to the welfare state
      • Aimed to reduce welfare expenditure (“rolling back the state”)
      • Most benefits targeted (only available to a specific group) and means-tested (only eligible if income falls below a certain level).
      • Example of a social policy: Child Support Agency (CSA). Aimed to reduce cost of benefits by making ‘absent parents’ pay for their children.
      • Encouraged more welfare to be provided by private companies (BUPA hospitals, private dentists, private schools etc)
    • The Dependency Culture (AO1)
      • During this time, New Right sociologists such as Murray and Marsland argued that welfare provision was creating a dependency culture (encouraging people to rely on government handouts rather than being self-sufficient).
      • They argued that all benefits should be means-tested and targeted so that only the most needy receive help.
      • They supported the ‘rolling back’ of welfare, as they believed the UK was a nanny state.
    • Advantages of means-tested benefits (AO2)
      • As only some people are eligible, the benefits cost less, meaning lower taxes
      • Ensures that only those who really need the benefits will get them
    • However…
      • Extra administration costs involved
      • Those just above the cut-off line could end up financially worse off (the poverty trap )
      • Low take-up due to shame, embarrassment or stigma.
    • Criticisms of the New Right Welfare State (AO2)
      • Cutting back certain universal benefits and services led to public outcry (e.g. Margaret Thatcher the Milk Snatcher!).
      • Poverty actually increased during the 1980s and 1990s!
      • Despite cuts, welfare expenditure was still quite high.
    • Extract from http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/15/ newsid_4486000/4486571.stm .
      • 1979: Councils defy Thatcher milk ban
      • Opposition is growing to Education Secretary Margaret Thatcher's plans to end free school milk for children over the age of seven.
      • The Conservatives have issued a warning to local authorities not to go ahead with any plans to break the law deliberately. Some Labour-controlled councils have threatened to put up the rates in order to continue supplying free milk.
      • But Mrs Thatcher has argued that ending free milk would free more money to spend on other areas of education, like new buildings.
      • At present free milk for primary school children costs £14m a year - twice as much as is being spent on school books. In a full year the saving on milk provision will be about £9m.
      • Mrs Thatcher told MPs the Chief Medical Officer had been consulted on the plans and he had advised that it was not possible to predict whether the withdrawal of free milk would harm children's diets and overall health. However, the government has asked for the effects to be monitored and promised to carry out a review if necessary.
      • Labour's education spokesman Edward Short attacked the Tories' proposals as "the meanest and most unworthy thing" he had seen in his 20 years in the House of Commons.
      • 1985: Oxford University refused Thatcher an honorary degree in protest against her cuts in education funding.
    • Formal Debate
      • Should welfare and benefits be freely available to all (universal) or only given to those who are sick, elderly or disabled?
    • Mini test:
      • Name the 5 giant evils identified in 1942
      • What was done to tackle the giant that represented general poverty?
      • Name the economic system used to guarantee employment in the post-war era
      • Name 2 social groups that were discriminated against in the post-war era
      • In which year did the New Right era of welfare begin?
      • Give one advantage of universal benefits
      • Give one advantage of means-testing
      • Name the two New Right sociologists who criticised the UK’s ‘dependency culture’
    • Topic 11: The New Labour welfare state (1997 – 2010)
      • The Third Way approach to welfare (the first way was old labour, and the second was new right)
      • Mixture of means-testing and universalism
      • Emphasis on rights and responsibilities
      • Emphasis on paid employment for all (including women, those with disabilities, lone parents and older citizens).
      • Welfare not just provided by the state but also by private, voluntary and informal providers (see topic 10)
      • Influenced by a sociologist - Giddens
    • Examples of New Labour Social Policy and Benefits
      • EMA
      • Tax credits
      • National Minimum Wage
      • University top-up fees
      • Income support
      • JSA
      • Winter fuel payments
      • Child Benefit
      • Council tax benefit
    • Task:
      • In pairs, choose one of the New Labour benefits or social policies.
      • Research as much information on this policy as you can
      • Then analyse whether it was..
      • Effective in preventing poverty
      • Universal, means-tested or targeted
      • Cost-effective to the tax payer
    • Criticisms of the New Labour Welfare State
      • Was ‘new labour’ really new? Or just a mixture of left and right wing welfare?
      • If this was the best way of organising welfare then why is there still poverty? And why didn't they win the 2010 election?
      • The NHS still suffers from waiting lists, lack of dentists etc
      • Wealthy people still get the best welfare (e.g. private schools) – is this fair?
    • When, where and why?
    • Topic 12: The Conservative-Lib Dem Coalition Government and the Welfare State
      • There was an election in May 2010
      • The Conservatives got the highest number of votes
      • But not high enough to become a government by themselves.
      • So they ‘teamed up’ with the Liberal Democrat party to form a coalition government.
      • They have already made many changes to welfare and social policies...
    • Discuss changes to the following social policies:
      • EMA
      • University tuition fees
      • Child Benefit
      • Building Schools for the Future (BSF)
      • Child Trust Funds
      • Health in Pregnancy Grant
      • How will these changes impact on poverty in the UK?
    • The current government’s views on welfare and poverty
      • White Paper published in November 2010:
      • The current system is too complicated because there are more than 50 different benefits/payment schemes available
      • Need to reduce the number of people on benefits, especially the long-term unemployed.
      • “ The Coalition Government is determined to reform the benefit system to make it fairer, more affordable and better able to tackle poverty, worklessness and welfare dependency”.
      • They want to introduce a new benefit policy called universal credit.
      • “ A basic allowance with additional elements for children, disability, housing and caring. It will support people both in and out of work, replacing Working Tax Credit, Child Tax Credit, Housing Benefit, Income Support, and Jobseeker’s Allowance”
    • Analysis of the current and proposed changes to welfare (AO2):
      • Seems like we are moving back to the New Right model of welfare (means testing and abolition of key benefits).
      • Poverty may well increase as a result of these changes.
      • Young people especially unhappy at the changes (protests and riots in December 2010 over tuition fees)
    • Mini Test:
      • Name two New Right sociologists
      • Name the sociologist who helped Blair develop the ‘Third Way’ approach to welfare
      • Suggest three different providers of welfare
      • Name one benefit that has been/will be abolished under the present government
      • Name the 5 giant evils
      • Which era of welfare wanted to ‘roll back the state’?
      • Name the universal benefit which will be changed to means-tested under the current government
      • Explain what is meant by the ‘poverty trap’
    • Debate time: which ‘era’ of welfare came closest to ending poverty? You will form 4 teams, each arguing that your era of welfare was the best for solving poverty. Remember: there are different types of poverty.
    •  
    • Topic 13: Welfare Pluralism
      • AKA – ‘The Mixed Economy of Welfare’
      • Key definitions:
      • Welfare pluralism: Using more than one institution to provide welfare to the population
      • Voluntary providers of welfare : Charitable or non-profit organizations that provide benefits/help/services to the population. Example: Salvation Army provides meals to rough sleepers.
      • Informal providers of welfare : Sources of care that are not official organizations. Example: family, neighbours
      • Private Providers of Welfare : Profit-making companies who charge for welfare. Example: private schools, private dentists, BUPA.
      • Statutory welfare provision : Welfare provided by law, usually through the government. Example: the NHS.
    • Do we have a mixed economy of welfare in the UK?
      • Yes.
      • Although we have a welfare state, it isn’t just the state that provides our welfare.
      • Each ‘era’ of welfare has included a plurality of welfare providers
      • But is this a good thing???
    • Voluntary providers (AO1)
      • Glennerster (2003): There are currently 400,000 charities in the UK. They receive funding from the state and donations .
      • However, voluntary provision is a minor provider of welfare compared to statutory, private and informal provision, especially as charities usually target a specific group only.
    • Advantages of using Voluntary Welfare Provision (AO1)
      • People may trust voluntary organisations more than the state.
      • Using volunteers reduces government costs.
      • Volunteers are usually committed and hardworking, so should provide high quality care
    • However…
      • Volunteers may lack formal training/qualifications so the care they provide could be inferior
      • Access to charities depends on where you live: the inverse care law could occur.
      • Lack of funding could affect availability
    • Informal Providers (AO1)
      • Arguably, parents provide welfare for their children every day.
      • 1990: The Community Care Act was passed. It stated people in local areas should take responsibility for each other. Thus, informal care has increased in recent years.
      • Feminists argue that this type of welfare is ignored in society, although if family members stopped providing welfare for children/elderly relatives, major problems would occur.
    • Mini test:
      • Which sociologist influenced the ‘third way’?
      • Which term describes the current government’s idea of ‘do it yourself’ welfare?
      • Which law led to increased informal welfare?
      • What is welfare pluralism also known as?
      • What are the two types of wealth?
      • Name one current means tested benefit
      • Suggest one problem of means testing
      • Explain what is meant by ‘private’ welfare providers
    • Advantages of Using Informal Welfare Provision (AO2)
      • Cuts cost of care homes
      • Most informal welfare is provided by females – functionalists (e.g. Parsons) think this is functional because women naturally adopt the expressive role in society
      • Quality of care for family members should be very high!
    • However…
      • Adds to the dual burden of women
      • Those with no immediate family and friends wont receive any welfare
      • Most informal welfare is unpaid
      • Do people nowadays really have time? (When did you last do the shopping for your elderly neighbour?)
      • Glennerster : it’s possible that informal care will start to decline, due to:
        • More women working (Less time for caring)
        • Birth rates declining (Less need for childcare)
        • Extended families declining (Less elderly care work at home)
    • Private Providers of Welfare (AO1)
      • Bishop (1997)
      • governments like using private welfare provision as it keeps costs down.
      • Private companies are “licking their lips” at the extra business this provides!
    • How significant is the Private Sector? (AO2)
      • Not only do individuals use private welfare, the government does, too.
      • PFI : Private Finance Initiative
      • A policy introduced by the Conservative government in 1992. New Labour has continued this policy.
      • It involves a partnership between the government and private businesses. A company will build and furnish a building (such as schools, hospitals or prisons) and pay for all costs involved. The government then rents the building from the company.
      • The aim of this scheme is for the state to cut costs of creating new buildings, and benefit from brand-new facilities.
      • However, critics say the costs of renting the facilities will eventually be higher than the cost of building them in the first place!
    • Advantages of Private Welfare Provision (AO2)
      • If richer people ‘go private’, there is more money left to spend on the needy
      • Using private companies boosts the economy
      • Because companies charge high fees, they promise to maintain high standards
    • However…
      • Marxists see this as yet another way to exploit the proletariat – why should wealth buy health?
      • Shortage of NHS workers because so many doctors/nurses/dentists leave to work in the private sector
      • The government funds NHS-related degrees – this is wasting tax-payers’ money if the graduates don’t actually work for the NHS.
    • Overall….
      • How much of our welfare is statutory?
      • Do we still have a ‘welfare state’ or are other organisations taking over from the government?
      • Is welfare pluralism a positive thing for society?
    • Topic 14: Revision and exam preparation
      • SCLY1: Section C (ignore the questions in sections A and B)
      • 2 items
      • 5 questions worth 60 marks in total
    • Examples:
      • Explain what is meant by a ‘mixed economy’ of welfare provision ( 2 marks )
      • Explain the difference between universal benefits and means-tested benefits ( 4 marks )
      • Suggest three ways in which the informal sector may provide day-to-day support to people in need ( 6 marks )
      • Examine the ways in which sociologists have defined and measured poverty and wealth (24 marks)
      • Assess different explanations for the causes of poverty in the United Kingdom. (24 marks)
    • Mini test:
      • Whose study will you use to demonstrate absolute poverty?
      • Who will you use to demonstrate relative poverty?
      • Who will you use to demonstrate multiple deprivation?
      • Name the 4 eras of welfare
      • Name the 5 giant evils
      • Suggest 3 functions of poverty
      • The structural view of poverty can also be known as…
      • The cultural view of poverty can also be known as…
      • Suggest 3 reasons why some ethnic minority groups experience poverty
      • Explain the inverse care law