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  1. 1. Demographics since 1900<br />We will be looking at the changes in birth rates and death rates<br />Understand reasons why these are both in decline<br />Investigating life expectancy and the ‘AGEING’ population <br />
  2. 2. Demography <br />Is the study of populations and their characteristics-<br />Size- is the population large or small? Growing or declining?<br />Age structure- is the average age of the population rising or falling?<br />
  3. 3. What causes a rise in the size of our population?<br />What causes a decline in the size of our population?<br />
  4. 4. What factors affect the country’s population?<br />Increase= births and immigration (enter country) <br />Decrease= deaths and emigration (exit country)<br />Immigration<br />Emigration<br />
  5. 5. Key terms<br />Birth rate= number of births per 1000 of the population over a year<br />Fertility rate= number of births per 1000 women aged 15 to 44 over a year<br />Death rate= number of deaths per 1000 of the population over a year<br />
  6. 6. Births <br />Look at the graph on page 48, what has happened to the birth rate since 1900? <br />
  7. 7. Birth rates<br />Long term decline<br />BUT.....<br />Baby booms!!- <br />What do you think was the reason for the first two baby booms?<br />
  8. 8. Reasons for the decline in birth rates<br />Changes in the position of women<br />Decline in the infant mortality rate <br />Children have become an economic asset<br />Child Centredness<br />
  9. 9. Task <br />In groups of 3 you will each become an expert in one reason for the decline in birth rate...<br />Expert 1= changes in the position of women<br />Expert 2= decline in IMR<br />Expert 3= children have become an economic liability AND child centredness<br />You will have 10 minutes to read up, make notes and prepare your reason, ready to teach to the rest of your group<br />
  10. 10. Future trends in birth rates <br />Generally, there has been a decline in birth rates<br />BUT ...... (AO2)<br />Since 2001 there has been a slight increase in births<br />Why? <br />Increase in immigration= women from outside UK have higher fertility rates<br />
  11. 11. How would the changes in birth rates impact on the family and public services/policies? <br />
  12. 12. Effects of changes in fertility<br />The family<br /><ul><li>Smaller families means women are more likely to be free to go to work= dual earner couple</li></ul>Public services<br /><ul><li>Fewer schools, child health and maternity services needed</li></li></ul><li>Effects of changes in fertility<br />Dependency ratio = r’ship between working (independent) and non-working (dependent) parts of the population<br />Children = dependent on the earnings and taxes of their parents (working population!)<br />Less children= “ reduces the burden of dependency”<br />
  13. 13. Death rates<br />In the UK, the death rate has fallen (halved) since 1900<br />However, there have been fluctuations:<br />What significant events may have accounted for rises in death rates in the 1900’s?<br />
  14. 14. Reasons for the increase in death rates<br />
  15. 15. Quiz <br />State three reasons for the decline in death rate (3)<br />Why has there been a slight increase in births since 2001 (1)<br />What are the trends for birth rate and death rate in the UK, since 1900? (2)<br />Define death rate (2)<br />What is the difference between birth rate and fertility rate? (2)<br />
  16. 16. Quiz <br />6. State 2 reasons why changes in the position of women has led to a decline in birth rate (2)<br />7. Why does a fall in IMR lead to a decrease in birth rate? (1)<br />8. State two reasons for the fall in IMR (2)<br />9. Why have children become a liability? (2)<br />10.What is the dependency ratio and how does a decline in birth rate affect this? (4)<br />/21<br />
  17. 17. Answers <br />Improved public health services, improved nutrition, medical improvements, smaller families, decline in dangerous jobs etc<br /> increase in immigration- higher fertility rate, account for 22% of all births in the uk<br />On the decline, but peaks around the world wars (baby booms)<br />No. Of deaths per 1000 of the pop per year<br />Birth rate= no of births per 1000 of pop per year, fertility= no of births per 1000 of women aged 15-45, per year<br />
  18. 18. Answers <br />6. Increased educational opportunities, more career driven, access to abortion and reliable contraception, legal equality, changes in attitudes to family life and women’s roles etc<br />7. If many children die parents have more children to replace them, if they survive parents have fewer children<br />8. Improved housing, sanitation, nutrition, better knowledge of hygiene , services (anti-natal classes)<br />9. Expensive, economically dependent on parents now that they are in full time education and cannot work<br />10. r’ship between size of working pop and non-working, dependent pop. Children are part of dependent pop, so decline= less burden on working pop (parents)<br />
  19. 19. Life expectancy <br />How long on average a person born in a given year can expect to live<br />What do you think the life expectancy is for a person in.... Any guess?<br />1900?<br />2003-2005?<br />50 for men- 57 for women<br />76.9 for men- 81.2 for women<br />
  20. 20. Life expectancy <br />The life expectancy was so low in 1900’s because many children did not live beyond the first few years of their life<br />15% died in their first year<br />A baby today has more chance of reaching their 65th birthday than a baby born in 1900 had of reaching 1!!!!<br />
  21. 21. Class, gender and regional differences<br />Females live longer than males<br />People in the south live longer than people in the north- why?<br />Middle class live longer than working class- why?<br />
  22. 22. What do these diagrams tell us about the age profile in the UK overtime?<br />1901 2005 <br /> 80+<br />80+<br />60-79<br />60-79<br />40-59<br />40-59<br />20-39<br />20-39<br />0-19<br />0-19<br />
  23. 23. ......The ageing population<br />The average age of the UK population is rising<br />1971= 34.1<br />2007= 39.6<br />We now have more older people, while younger groups are shrinking!!<br />Why do we have an ageing population? =<br />increased life expectancy, decreased birth/fertility rates<br />
  24. 24. Effects of an Ageing population<br />How does the increase in old people effect public services and the dependency ratio?<br />
  25. 25. Effects of an ageing population<br />Public services<br /><ul><li> use services such as NHS and social care services more
  26. 26. Increased expenditure on services such as, housing (old people’s homes), transport (free bus pass)</li></li></ul><li>Effects of an ageing population<br />Dependency ratio<br /><ul><li>Economically dependent on working group (through taxes)
  27. 27. Economic burden
  28. 28. BUT age of retirement is rising- so old people are not always economically dependent!</li></li></ul><li>Policy implications<br />Problem= “how do we finance a longer period of old age?”<br />Hirsh (2005)- “ a number of social policies need to change in order to tackle problems faced by an ageing population!”<br />Pay more into pension schemes<br />Increase retirement age – educational resources<br />Changes in housing policy- trade down into smaller houses/retirement houses<br />
  29. 29. Old age can be seen as a social construct- shaped and defined by society<br />