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Demographics since 1900 We will be looking at the changes in birth rates and death rates Understand reasons why these are both in decline Investigating life expectancy and the ‘AGEING’ population
Demography Is the study of populations and their characteristics- Size- is the population large or small? Growing or declining? Age structure- is the average age of the population rising or falling?
What causes a rise in the size of our population? What causes a decline in the size of our population?
What factors affect the country’s population? Increase= births and immigration (enter country) Decrease= deaths and emigration (exit country) Immigration Emigration
Key terms Birth rate= number of births per 1000 of the population over a year Fertility rate= number of births per 1000 women aged 15 to 44 over a year Death rate= number of deaths per 1000 of the population over a year
Births Look at the graph on page 48, what has happened to the birth rate since 1900?
Birth rates Long term decline BUT..... Baby booms!!- What do you think was the reason for the first two baby booms?
Reasons for the decline in birth rates Changes in the position of women Decline in the infant mortality rate Children have become an economic asset Child Centredness
Task In groups of 3 you will each become an expert in one reason for the decline in birth rate... Expert 1= changes in the position of women Expert 2= decline in IMR Expert 3= children have become an economic liability AND child centredness You will have 10 minutes to read up, make notes and prepare your reason, ready to teach to the rest of your group
Future trends in birth rates Generally, there has been a decline in birth rates BUT ...... (AO2) Since 2001 there has been a slight increase in births Why? Increase in immigration= women from outside UK have higher fertility rates
How would the changes in birth rates impact on the family and public services/policies?
Smaller families means women are more likely to be free to go to work= dual earner couple
Fewer schools, child health and maternity services needed
Effects of changes in fertility Dependency ratio = r’ship between working (independent) and non-working (dependent) parts of the population Children = dependent on the earnings and taxes of their parents (working population!) Less children= “ reduces the burden of dependency”
Death rates In the UK, the death rate has fallen (halved) since 1900 However, there have been fluctuations: What significant events may have accounted for rises in death rates in the 1900’s?
Quiz State three reasons for the decline in death rate (3) Why has there been a slight increase in births since 2001 (1) What are the trends for birth rate and death rate in the UK, since 1900? (2) Define death rate (2) What is the difference between birth rate and fertility rate? (2)
Quiz 6. State 2 reasons why changes in the position of women has led to a decline in birth rate (2) 7. Why does a fall in IMR lead to a decrease in birth rate? (1) 8. State two reasons for the fall in IMR (2) 9. Why have children become a liability? (2) 10.What is the dependency ratio and how does a decline in birth rate affect this? (4) /21
Answers Improved public health services, improved nutrition, medical improvements, smaller families, decline in dangerous jobs etc increase in immigration- higher fertility rate, account for 22% of all births in the uk On the decline, but peaks around the world wars (baby booms) No. Of deaths per 1000 of the pop per year Birth rate= no of births per 1000 of pop per year, fertility= no of births per 1000 of women aged 15-45, per year
Answers 6. Increased educational opportunities, more career driven, access to abortion and reliable contraception, legal equality, changes in attitudes to family life and women’s roles etc 7. If many children die parents have more children to replace them, if they survive parents have fewer children 8. Improved housing, sanitation, nutrition, better knowledge of hygiene , services (anti-natal classes) 9. Expensive, economically dependent on parents now that they are in full time education and cannot work 10. r’ship between size of working pop and non-working, dependent pop. Children are part of dependent pop, so decline= less burden on working pop (parents)
Life expectancy How long on average a person born in a given year can expect to live What do you think the life expectancy is for a person in.... Any guess? 1900? 2003-2005? 50 for men- 57 for women 76.9 for men- 81.2 for women
Life expectancy The life expectancy was so low in 1900’s because many children did not live beyond the first few years of their life 15% died in their first year A baby today has more chance of reaching their 65th birthday than a baby born in 1900 had of reaching 1!!!!
Class, gender and regional differences Females live longer than males People in the south live longer than people in the north- why? Middle class live longer than working class- why?
What do these diagrams tell us about the age profile in the UK overtime? 1901 2005 80+ 80+ 60-79 60-79 40-59 40-59 20-39 20-39 0-19 0-19
......The ageing population The average age of the UK population is rising 1971= 34.1 2007= 39.6 We now have more older people, while younger groups are shrinking!! Why do we have an ageing population? = increased life expectancy, decreased birth/fertility rates
Effects of an Ageing population How does the increase in old people effect public services and the dependency ratio?
Effects of an ageing population Public services
use services such as NHS and social care services more
Increased expenditure on services such as, housing (old people’s homes), transport (free bus pass)
Effects of an ageing population Dependency ratio
Economically dependent on working group (through taxes)
BUT age of retirement is rising- so old people are not always economically dependent!
Policy implications Problem= “how do we finance a longer period of old age?” Hirsh (2005)- “ a number of social policies need to change in order to tackle problems faced by an ageing population!” Pay more into pension schemes Increase retirement age – educational resources Changes in housing policy- trade down into smaller houses/retirement houses
Old age can be seen as a social construct- shaped and defined by society