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  1. 3. <ul><li>What will there attitude of school be? </li></ul><ul><li>What set would they be in? </li></ul><ul><li>How would they behave in school? </li></ul><ul><li>What would their status be in school? </li></ul>
  2. 4. Summarise the ethnic differences in achievement
  3. 6. <ul><li>79 per cent of Chinese girls </li></ul><ul><li>70 per cent of Chinese boys </li></ul><ul><li>72 per cent of Indian girls </li></ul><ul><li>62 per cent of Indian boys </li></ul><ul><li>27 per cent of Black Caribbean boys </li></ul><ul><li>44 per cent of Black Caribbean girls </li></ul>2004, five or more GCSE grades A*-C in England:
  4. 7. <ul><li>Below average reading ability </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer GCSE results than Whites & Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Males- over represented in SEN units </li></ul><ul><li>3- 6 times more likely to be permenantly excluded from school </li></ul><ul><li>Over- represented in lower streams </li></ul><ul><li>Least likely to stay on in post 16 ed- if they do, more likely to take vocational qualification </li></ul>
  5. 8. <ul><li>Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean and Pakistani groups were less likely than White British people to have a degree or equivalent. </li></ul><ul><li>Most likely to have degrees: </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese (31%), </li></ul><ul><li>Indian (25%) </li></ul><ul><li>White British (17%) </li></ul>
  6. 9. <ul><li>write down your thoughts about how each factor may impact on ethnic differences </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Deprivation </li></ul><ul><li>Material Deprivation </li></ul><ul><li>Racism </li></ul><ul><li>Think sociologically: Think about how different ethnicity’s may be affected by each factor </li></ul>
  7. 10. <ul><li>Many children from low income black families lack intellectual stimulation and enriching experiences- poorly equipped for school </li></ul><ul><li>Bereiter and Engelmann- language spoken by low income black American families as inadequate for educational success- ungrammatical, disjointed </li></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>Black children are socialised into a subculture which instils fatalistic, ‘live for today’ attitude that does not value education and doesn’t motivate success </li></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>Failure to socialise children adequately is the result of dysfunctional family structure </li></ul><ul><li>Moynihan (1965)- many black families headed by lone mother= poor care due to lack of money= absence of father figure lacks male role models </li></ul><ul><li>Vicious cycle- inadequate socialisation= failure at school= become inadequate parent! </li></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>Flew (1984)- ethnic differences in achievement stem from cultural differences outside the education system, not within it </li></ul><ul><li>Pryce (1979)- compared family structure of asian and black families </li></ul><ul><li>Asian= more resistant to racism which gives them self worth </li></ul><ul><li>Black= culture is less cohesive, </li></ul><ul><li>less resistant to racism which </li></ul><ul><li>results in low self esteem </li></ul>Why do you think this is?
  11. 14. <ul><li>Drive and Ballard (1981)- Asian families bring educational benefits </li></ul><ul><li>More positive attitudes towards education </li></ul><ul><li>Higher aspirations for future </li></ul><ul><li>Lupton (2004)- adult authority is similar to model that operates in schools </li></ul><ul><li>Respect towards adults </li></ul><ul><li>AO2= Khan (1979) found Asian families to be stress ridden- controlling!! </li></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>80% of 11-16 old ethnic minority pupils aspired to got to university </li></ul><ul><li>Only 68% of white pupils did! </li></ul><ul><li>This lower level of aspiration and achievement may be a result of a lack of parental support </li></ul>
  13. 16. How can we criticise cultural deprivation theory?
  14. 17. <ul><li>Flaherty (2004): ethnic minorities are more likely to face material deprivation </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistanis and Bangladeshis are over 3 times more likely than whites to be in the poorest 5 th of population </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment is 3x higher in African and Bangladeshi/Pakistani people than for whites </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistanis are 2x likely to be in unskilled/semi skilled jobs compared to whites </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>Parallel in school </li></ul><ul><li>Swann report (1985)- social class accounts for at least 50% of the difference in achievement between ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>Need to take class into account when we compare educational achievements of ethnicities- not just all cultural deprivation! </li></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li> </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>Mason (1995) “ discrimination is a continuing and persistent feature of the experience of Britain’s citizens of minority ethnic origin!” </li></ul><ul><li>Rex (1986)- racial discrimination leads to social exclusion= worsens the poverty! </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>Noon (1993)- sent identical pairs of letters of enquiry about future employment opportunities to the top 100 UK companies </li></ul><ul><li>signed by fictitious applicants called ‘Evan and Patel’ with same qualifications and experience </li></ul><ul><li>More encouraging to the white candidate </li></ul><ul><li>Explains how children of ethnic minorities may not be encouraged to achieve! </li></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>Write down each ethnic minority which we have looked at today, (white, Asian, Black, Bangladeshi, Pakistani) </li></ul><ul><li>Label around each ethnicity how their achievement is impacted by external factors; cultural deprivation, material deprivation and racism </li></ul><ul><li>Note: most research has been carried out on black people so leave a lot of space!! </li></ul>
  20. 23. Lack intellectual stimulation and enriching experiences Family structure is less cohesive and less resistant to racism= low self esteem and underachievement
  21. 24. <ul><li>Prepare for timed assessment on Tuesday (period 6) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess the view that working-class under-achievement in education is the result of home circumstances and family background.” </li></ul><ul><li>(20 marks) </li></ul>