Culture<br />Culture is...... A shared way of life. A set of shared rules that everyone understands without being told what to do. A set of expected behaviours.<br />
What social rules do we all follow?<br />Laws- these are written down, if we break them, we are punished in some way. They are written by government or those in power.<br />Norms- these refer to ‘normal’ behaviour, the way we are expected to act on a day to day basis. Norms can vary from place to place.<br />Morals- are our sense of right and wrong. If we break the moral code people would be angry.<br />Values- are a sense of what is important. They are even stronger than norms and morals. They are important underlying ideas that control how we act .<br />
How are we controlled in society?<br />We gain positive sanctions when we do follow the rules and negative ones when we don’t.<br />
Social stratification<br />Social class<br />THE ‘UPPER’ CLASS<br />THE ‘MIDDLE’ CLASS<br />THE ‘WORKING’ CLASS<br />THE ‘UNDERCLASS’<br />In Britain the we have a system of “social stratification” based on “SOCIAL CLASS”. It is an ‘open’ system.<br />A person’s class is based on their occupation or the occupation of the head of the family. There are many problems with this:<br />A family might have 2 people doing different jobs<br />Many people do not have jobs<br />There are different levels within the same job<br />‘Class’ means more than jobs, it includes lifestyle etc: This makes individuals different<br />
Social issues<br />POVERTY £££<br />DISCRIMINATION<br />CRIME<br />SEXISM<br />racism<br />
Work out whether the following things are part of formal or hidden curriculum.<br />English<br />Religious education<br />Dress code<br />Obedience<br />ICT<br />Citizenship<br />Maths<br />Routine<br />Gender roles<br />National curriculum<br />Rules<br />Achievement/ competition<br />
How does the process of labelling work?<br />Consider your time in school (without using any names) give an example of when you think have been labelled and you have either lived up to it or fought against it. <br />
Differences in school achievement: Class<br />Students from working class on average achieve less within formal education than their middle-class peers.<br />Fewer working class children attend university.<br />REASONS<br />Material deprivation- lack of money<br />Parents attitude- lack of interest and encouragement<br />Speech patterns- slang-compared to the ‘Queen’s English’!<br />Cultural capital- BOURDIEU- middle class parents have experiences, knowledge and values that help them to help their children achieve.<br />They may be labelled by teachers.<br />
Differences in school achievement: Gender<br />Boys used to do better than girls<br />Today girls are outperforming boys in most subjects and at all ages<br />Boys only do better in physics<br />Girls and boys are about equal in maths<br />This could cause problems for males in the future<br />REASONS<br />Increasing job opportunities for women, but less manufacturing jobs for boys- crisis of masculinity- fatalistic.<br />Girls spend more time on homework and are more organised.<br />Girls are socialised differently- behaviour, communication, they see schoolwork as beneficial.<br />Attitudes about the ‘correct behaviour’ of girls in school<br />
Differences in school achievement: Ethnicity<br />Some ethnic minority pupils underachieve at school for example Afro-Caribbean and Bangladeshi pupils.<br />Some do very well at school, for example many Indian Asian and Chinese pupils.<br />Pakistani, Bangladeshi and black Caribbean students are under-represented at university.<br />REASONS<br />Ethnic minorities may be materially deprived.<br />Their studies may be carried out in a ‘foreign’ language.<br />They may be culturally deprived.<br />The curriculum may be ethnocentric<br />Teachers may label them.<br />
GOVERNMENT and education<br />1997<br />OFSTED given power to place failing schools in special measures- re-inspected more regularly.<br />Education action zones were created to improve achievement in the most disadvantaged areas.- particularly the inner cities.<br />They abolished grants for students attending university and introduced loans.<br />
What is marriage like in the UK?<br />Rise in cohabitation- many people are choosing to live together.<br />39% of single people aged between 25 and 34 are cohabiting.<br />It is sometimes something a couple does before they are married.<br />But it can also be an alternative to marriage.<br />Now only 36% of marriages are in a church.<br />
Why has there been an increase in divorce?<br />Changes in the law have made it easier, quicker and cheaper to get divorced<br />We have a more tolerant attitude towards divorce today<br />Problems with marriage such as money and jobs<br />Careers ‘get in the way’ of marriages<br />People are less religious so have fewer religious objections to divorce.<br />
Changes in family roles have happened because...<br />Women were having fewer children, later in lives. This has left more time and desire for them to work.<br />Men were spending more time in the home because they were working shorter hours and were in jobs that were less physically demanding.<br />Home and the family have become more of a central focus. Families have become more child centred, homes have become more comfortable and now have entertaining spaces in which to relax after work.<br />
The government and family<br />In the past the government have introduced child tax credits to try and help families on a low income.<br />They also introduced sure start, aimed at getting delivering the best start in life for children. Children aged 3-4 are granted a free early education place.<br />Modernfamily<br /><ul><li>In the past they would have been located close together, but technology has allowed families to live further apart and communicate via the internet.
Children are likely to be more financially dependent on their parents for a longer time.
Fathers are much more involved in the upbringing of the children.</li>
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