1. 1. Assess the contribution of postmodernism to sociologists understanding of crime and deviance in today’s society (21 marks)Some sociologists believe that we now live in a post-modern society that has a distinct set of characteristics in comparison to modernsociety. This essay will discuss the changes that have taken place in postmodern society and how this impacts upon our understanding ofSome and deviance.crime sociologists believe that state crime is the most serious form of crime while other sociologists will disagree and suggest things likegreen of the corporate crime and streetsome of the characteristics of postmodern society?Some crime, What are crime are more serious. This essay will examine these points of view.State crime can becharacteristics of post- How can state crime be defined? What different form does state crime take with and example for each?defined asmodern societies are.... Some sociologist suggests Why is state crime the most serious form of crime?that state crime is seriousOne of the key changes in How has this influenced our understanding of the causes of crime?for the following reasons.post modern society is theOne problem with statecollapse of the meta What are human rights and why is using this definition problematiccrime is thatnarratives. it is hard todefine one change in postOne other way around How has our conception of what crime is has changed?this is to define itis our–modern society asviolation of human rights.understanding of whatSome sociologists havecrime is has had to How to Cohen and Kelman explain the occurrence of state crime?tried tochange. explain how thestatekey post-modernistOne justifies its crimes What has Foucault say about surveillance and crime and how is it relevant to today’s society?again this shows howthinker is Foucault, hisserious itsocial a problem.work on is as control andOther sociologists reallysurveillance seemshave How has globalisation contributed to our understanding of crime?suggested to our the keyimportant one offeatures of post-modernunderstanding of post-society is globalisation.modernism and crime.Other sociologists have How has globalisation contributed to our understanding of crime?Other sociologiststhe keysuggested one of reject What is green crime? What are examples of primary and secondary green crimes?the view of post-modernisfeatures that stat crimethe most globalisation.society is serious form of Why is green crime important to study? (strengths)crime and would suggestthat modern theories ofPost green crime is more What are the strengths of postmodernist theories?serious. useful becausecrime areSome sociologists reject How has green crime been criticised?the views of greenHowever, other What are the weaknesses of post modernist theories?criminologists.sociologists haveSome sociologists suggestsuggested postmodern Describe an example of corporate crime.that corporate and whitetheories of crime arecollar crimes are evenlimited because. Why is it important to study corporate crime?more sociologists believeMany serious that state Describe one modernist theory of crime (e.g. Marxism) and explain what type of crime it is still useful incrime.that society has not How has the study of white collar crime and corporate crime been criticised? explaining today.entered a post-modernConclusionstage. Therefore, manymodernist theories ofcrime and deviance maybe useful in understandingcrime and deviance.Conclusion 2. ‘State crime is the most serious form of crime.’ Using sociological arguments and evidence assess the above statement. 21 marks 3. Assess sociological perspectives on crime reduction strategies. (21 marks)Different sociologists take very different approaches in their understanding of crime reduction and its effectiveness this essay will essay arange of points of view on this.Right realists have suggest that crime is caused by the underclass, What is meant by situational crime prevention?those on long term benefits, single parent families and welfaredependency. They believe that crime is caused by rational choice, What is meant by surveillance?where offenders weigh up the costs vs benefits of offending theirviews on crime prevention involve making the costs higher andtougher punishments. What is zero tolerance policing?One criticism of these approaches is they have simply displaced Explain what is meant by displacement theory?crime. Another issue is zero tolerance policing may not be
2. effective. Why might clear up rates of ZTP be misleading?How have right realists been criticised for their views?Left realists would disagree with right realist approaches to crime Explain the left realist approach to reducing crime.reduction as they do not really deal with the root cause of crimewhich is poverty. They think in impoverished areas communitieshave broken down, people cannot gain employment due todeprivation this leads to criminal subcultures. In these areas therelationship between the police and community has broken down.How have left realist approaches been criticised?Left realism has been influential on New Labour Governments What is social exclusion and how did it influence social policy?approach to crime prevention. What crime prevention measures did new labour take?Some sociologists have suggested that New Labours approach has What are the strengths and weakness of New labours polices?been effective but others disagree.One other major form of crime prevention is punishment, such as What trends have occurred in relation to prisons in recent years?prison the effectiveness of punishment is largely dependent onhow you view its aims. What does Foucault say about prisons? What do Marxists and Functionalists say about punishment?Conclusion 4. Assess sociological research and explanations of the relationship between mass media and crime and deviance. (21 marks)This essay intends to discuss a range of issue that relate to the influence of mass media on crime and deviance. It will consider therelationship between news, fiction and moral panics on crime and deviance and also consider whether the mass media can have a directeffect on criminal and deviant behaviour.One of the key ways crime and deviance is represented in the How is crime represented in fiction and how does this distort ourmedia is fiction. Sociologists have suggested that the crime in images of crime?fiction gives society an unrealistic view of crime.
3. How has reality TV distorted our understanding of crime and deviance?Another key way that our understanding of crime is distorted is due How is crime distorted in the news?to its reporting in the news, due to news values and agenda setting.Another way in which news reporting distorts our understanding of Explain examples and process of moral panics and mediacrime is through the concept of moral panics. amplification according to Cohen and Hall.However, some sociologists have criticised the concept of moral How has the process of moral panics been criticised?panics.In contrast to the above some sociologists suggested that the Explain in what ways the media can have a direct effect uponmedia has a direct impact upon our behaviour. One example of behaviourthis is the idea of the hypodermic model.However, some sociologists have suggested that there is mixed Explain one piece of evidence that supports the idea media effectsevidence on direct media effects. behaviour. What criticism can we make of the idea that media directly effects behaviour?Conclusion 5. Assess sociological explanations and research on the relationship between patterns of offending and ethnicity. (21 marks)Official statistics indicate there are What are some of the differences in patterns of offending in different ethnic minority groups indifferences in the offending rates of the UK?different ethnic groups in the UK.This essay will explore thesedifferences and sociologicalexplanations of these differences
4. One explanation of the differences in How did Gilroy explain differences in patterns of offending?patterns of offending is the work ofGilroy. What evaluation can we make of Gilroy’s work?In contrast to Gilroy, Hall suggests How did Hall explain differences in patterns of offending?that may be an alternativerelationship between offending andethnicity. What evaluation can we make of Hall’s work?In more recent times Left Realists How do left realists explain differences in patterns of offending?have suggested that rather that ethicdifferences being a moral panic theytake issue of ethnicity and offendingas a real problem that needs realsolutions. What evaluation can we make of left realist work?In contrast to all of the above, may What evidence is there that the criminal justice system is racist?sociologists suggest that ethnicminorities are not more criminal thanthe white majority. These patternsare simply the result of a racistcriminal justice system.Conclusion 6. Assess sociological explanations and research on the relationship between patterns of offending and gender. (21 marks)Official statistics indicate there What are some of the differences in patterns of offending between men and women ?are differences in the offendingrates of men and women. Thisessay will explore thesedifferences and sociologicalexplanations of these differences
5. One explanation of why women How does Heidenson explain differences in patterns of offending?offend less is Heidenson? What evaluation can we make of her work?Carlen is a feminist writer that How did Carlen explain differences in patterns of offending?agreed with Carlen in manyways, however, she took aslightly different view of thereasons why women offend less.She did this by examining femaleoffenders. What evaluation can we make of her work?In contrast to the above Adler How does Adler suggest that women’s offending rates have changed?suggests that women arebecoming as criminal as men.She explains this via theliberation hypothesis. What evaluation can we make of her work?In contrast to all of the above What evidence is there that the criminal justice system is biased in favour of women?Pollack suggested that womenmay well be as criminal as menbut the criminal justice system isbiased in their favour. He callsthis idea the chivalry thesis. What evidence is there that it is biased against womenOne final point to consider is the idea that men may simply commit more crime than women. For example, Messerschmidt suggests thatmen may use criminality to express subordinate forms of masculinity. For example, if a man cannot be a successful breadwinner andexpress hegemonic masculinity they may innovate and become a pimp or drug dealer to express their masculinity.Conclusion 7. Assess sociological explanations and research on the relationship between patterns of offending and victimisation and age. (21 marks)Official statistics indicate there are What are some of the differences in patterns of offending and victimisation and age?differences in the offending rates
6. and victimisation and age. This essaywill explore these patterns andsociological explanations of this.One explanation of why young How does Cohen’s theory explain delinquency?people are more criminal is Cohen’sidea of delinquent subcultures. What evaluation can we make of Cohen’s work?Matza is a sociologist who disagrees How does Matza explain delinquency?with Cohen’s explanation he suggeststhat young people are more criminalbut this is not due to subcultures. Hetakes a very different approach toexplaining delinquency. What evaluation can we make of his work?In contrast to the above Left and How would right realists explain delinquency?Right realists would explain whyyoung people are more criminal in adifferent way. What evaluation can we make of their work? How would left realists explain delinquency? What evaluation can we make of their work?Conclusion 10. Assess sociological explanations and research on the relationship between patterns of offending and victimisation and class. (21 marks)
7. Official statistics What are some of the differences in patterns of offending and victimisation and class?indicate there aredifferences in theoffending rates andvictimisation andclass. This essay willexplore thesepatterns andsociologicalexplanations of this.One explanation of How do Marxists explain differences in offending rates?why working classpeople are morecriminal is Marxistexplanation. How does Chambliss study support Marxist explanations? How can we evaluate Marxist explanations of crime and deviance?In contrast to the How would right realists explain working class crime?above Left and Rightrealists would explainwhy the workingclasses are morecriminal in a different What evaluation can we make of their work?way. How would left realists explain working class crime? What evaluation can we make of their work?Conclusion 11. Assess the usefulness of different sociological approaches to suicide. (21 marks)
8. Different sociologists have taken to the study of suicide. Postivists and interpretivists have totally different views about society, sociologyand how to study suicide. This essay will explore these various strengths and weaknesses of these approaches in explaining suicide.Durkheim was one of Explain Durkheim’s approach to studying suicide and what theory of suicide he came up with.the first sociologists tostudy suicide. He took apositivist approach tosuicide. How can we evaluate Durkheim’s research?Interpretive sociologists How did Douglas criticise Durkheim’s approach how did he suggest that suicide be studied?disagree withDurkheim’s approachand explanation ofsuicide. How can Douglas work be evaluated?One criticism of Douglas How did Atkinson approach studying suicide and what did his research reveal?is he did not take hiswork far enoughAtkinson took aninteractionist approachto the study of suicide. How can his work be evaluated?In contrast to the How did Taylor approach studying suicide and what did his research reveal?above, Taylor was asociologist who wantedto move beyond thepositivist andinterpretivist debate onsuicide. He took arealist approach tosuicide.Concluison