Marxists Theory of the role of Socialisation Functionalist Theory of the role of Socialisation Youth Youth Sub- Cultures Spectacular Youth Subcultures Jefferson (1976) Teddy Boys Youth Sub Culture CCCS
Society is held together by a value consensus, everyone learns the norms and values through socialisation, everyone benefits from this socialisation and ensures society works in harmony. Parsons who is a Functionalist believes the most important Agency of socialisations is the family, and that the child in the family is an empty vessel which must be filled with shared cultural values and norms. For example in the topic of Youth Functionalists believe Youth deviance is just a process that youths go through and is normal and just a route that has to be followed prior to adulthood. So they see youth deviance as providing a function. Marxists argue that socialisation involves the population being programmed into believing the values of the ruling class. Marxists believe only the ruling class benefit from this arrangement. Marxists believe socialisation is part of the ruling class ideology, basically a master plan to by the ruling class to exploit the working class/subject class. For example in the topic of Youth, Marxists believe that youths are resisting and rebelling against the unfair Capitalist system. Youth can be seen as a distinct social group from early in the nineteenth century, however youth culture became more defined in the 1940’s and 1950’s. The economy was booming , and most youth people were employed and had disposable income to spend on fashion, music and leisure. A group of young people who have similar norms and values as each other, which may be different from those of the main culture. IE Mods and Rockers, Goths, Chavs, skinheads, punks, emos. Jefferson (1976) studied Teddy Boys, he found they were affluent and came from working class families. Their norms and values revolved around the attitude of shocking their parents and they were very consumer and style conscious. The Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies in Birmingham CCCS were Marxists sociologists who believed that social class was the main division in society and that it was crucial for the formation and behaviour of youth subcultures. The CCCS carried out studies on the flamboyant youth cultures of the 50’s to the 70’s , known as Spectacular Youth Subcultures because of their distinctive dress and styles.
Youth Sub Cultures Reasons for emergence Brake (1980) Hippies Youth Sub Culture Factors involved in Social Construction of Youth Sub Cultures Youth Deviance Labelling Becker (1963) Youth Deviance Moral Panics Cohen (1973) Youth statistics Crime and Deviance
Brake suggests that Hippies come from middle class families, in contrast to the Teddy Boys. Their attitudes were peace loving , against consumerism, and very permissive i.e. free love. Style Music Changing Identities Rite of Passage Resisting the norm Oppression . Becker (1963) The definition of whether someone is deviant or not is based on whether the rest of society believe they are following societies accepted norms and values or whether they are deviating from them. In the event they are viewed as deviating from the shared norms and values of society then they are labelled deviant. Labels such as Yobs , hooligans etc. are difficult to shake off and can become the persons “master status” something they become known as and this becomes a self fulfilling prophecy. Demographic Trends – more peoplein the population so Youths more visible Schooling – as youths are in school to a later age rather than working they have more time to socialise with their peers. The Media – creates youth cultures through consumerism and how it transmits messages about style and trends. The Economy – extending the school leaving age benefits the economy as there are a better educated more mature workforce Globalisation – World influences on youth Bollywood for example Consumption – Companies target youths because of their spending power Style – Shaping identity through style and trends is a recent trend due to the affluence of youths post war Peak age for offending is 18 and 15 for females. 80% of youth offenders are males. Young black males have higher rates of offending than Asian or white youths. Half of all youth crime involved theft Between 1992 and 2004 youth crime fell by 20% Cohen(1973) used the term moral panics to describe why young people appeared to be committing most of the crime. He believed that the media were responsible for stereotyping certain youth sub cultures and creating fear and over reporting of events. I.e. the term Hoodies has created a feeling of fear amongst society and this term becomes Headline News. This is a form of labelling.
Youth Deviance Patterns and Trends Gender Youth Offenders Risk Factors Youth Deviance Patterns and Trends Social Class Youth Deviance Patterns and Trends Ethnicity Youth in Education Gender role Reay ( 2001) Youth in Education Factors that affect experience
Troubled home life Peer Pressure Poor educational experience Drug misuse Mental Illness Deprivation and homelessness Males are more likely to commit crime than females. Reasons maybe that girls are socialised that crime and highly deviant behaviour aren't feminine. Messerschmidt (1993) links masculine identity to “doing crime” Young males have less informal control on their lives Young males are more likely to engage in risk taking behaviour Young males are more likely to be targeted by the police There are more black youths being charged with crimes. Reasons why may include discrimination by the police, i.e. more stop and search of black youths. Labelling by the police and media Poor socio economic background . There are clear differences in types of crime being committed by the different classes. Messerschmidt (1993) white working class youths more likely to commit vandalism and theft as a way of rebelling against the constraints on their hegemonic masculinity in education. Middle class crime is more based around recreational drug use. Sub Culture Achievement Extracurricular opportunities Peer group, socialising, bullying Teacher/pupil relationship Attendance, truancy, expulsion Reay ( 2001) found gender crucial to peer group formation , found girls age 8 had separated into groups of nice girls, girlies, spice girls and tom boys. The issue of gender is an important factor in the experience of youths in education.
Age Identities Media influence Muncie (2004) Youth in Education Pro and anti school subcultures Sewell (2000) Afro Caribbean boys Youth in Education Pro and anti school Subcultures Jackson (2006a) Ladettes . Youth in Education Pro and anti school Subcultures Shain 92003) Asian Girls Youth Achievement in Education Willis (1977) Youth Factors that affect the education experience
Sewell identified four visible groups. Conformists – wanted to achieve academic success. Innovators – accepted the goals of education but were very anti school. Retreatists – rejected school and education and although not confrontational they didn’t do their school work. Rebels - this group rejected school and education and challenged authority, they were disliked and distrusted by the other three groups. Muncie (2004) has put forward the view that youth is over represented as deviant and troublesome in the Media. The middle class as a time of crisis and old age as a time of dependency and loneliness. Shain (2003) interviewed Asian girls in different schools in Manchester. She identified four groups of girls that used different strategies to cope with School. Gang Girls who were anti school and education. Survivors who were pro school and education, and conformed to their parental culture by being shy and timid . Rebels who were also pro school and pro education and they rejected their parental culture. Faith girls who were also pro education and pro schooling, and they prioritised religion and difference as a source of identity and they were conforming. This study shows that’s there are sub cultures within ethnic groups that determine their experience in education. . Jackson (2006a) researched Ladettes culture in secondary schools and claimed they displayed anti school and anti swot characteristics. Their norms and values included acting hard, smoking, swearing, disrupting lessons, being cheeky. The girls were in danger of not achieving at school as they attitude was ‘its not cool to be clever’ Class Gender Ethnicity Boys don’t do so well in education, working class boys do least well. Willis found that working class boys underachieve are more likely to form anti-school subcultures and to find an alternative to academic work through achievement in sports or workplace related activities.
Youth in Education Gender / changing masculinities Mac an Ghaill (1994) Youth in Education Gender/ changing feminities Sue Sharpe (1976) Youth in Education Gender / Class Messerschmidt (1993) Youthin Education Willis (1977) Youth in Education Sewell (2000) Youths in Education Achievement and Exclusion Statistics
Mac an Ghaill( 1994) Crisis of masculinity has been used to explain male achievement patterns. Males have lower achievement and Mac an Ghaill believe this is a result of facing an uncertain future and that the male role is no longer clear cut, so males are not sure educational success is crucial. Basically there is a crisis of masculinity which has affected males view of education as a source of worth, which means males don’t try hard in school. Sue Sharp interviewed a group of working class girls in the 70’s and found they valued romance and motherhood more than education or a career. In 1994 she did another set of interview and found working class girls to be more career orientated, seeing education as a route to economic and social success. . Willis (1977) Believed that working class boys use a concept of ‘resistance’ to make up for their marginalised position in school. As the boys feel inferior as they aren't so academically advanced as middle class boys, they make racist and sexist jokes as a way of resisting their perceived inferiority. Messerschmidt says that men construct their masculinity. He said working class white boys are frustrated at school as they cant express their hegemonic masculinity. Therefore they rebel against the school and education. Whereas middle class boys want to avoid being labelled as trouble makers due to their upbringing, so middle class boys are more accommodating in Education and therefore tend to achieve more. Achievement Boys don’t achieve as well as girls, however the class differences in achievement are much wider than the gender differences. Exclusion – some 100,000 youths are expelled from school each year, mostly white and black working class boys, black wc boys have significantly higher exclusion rates Sewell also used the concept of resistance to explain the behaviour of some Afro Caribbean boys in Education. This group of boys also don’t do as well statistically as other ethnic groups. He believed the Afro Caribbean boys felt that the teachers were failing their needs so they either came into the category of Retreatists or Rebels as a form of resistance.