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  1. 1. Policing Punishment and Control<br />
  2. 2. Social Control<br />Societies exist if there is a degree of order, with no order there would be chaos.<br />Societies or powerful members develop methods to control those who fail to adhere:<br />Informal Social Control- negative comments, looked down upon<br />Formal Social Control- Organisation that exist solely or partly to enforce order<br />Think of at least two examples for both (2mins)<br />
  3. 3. Approaches to Understanding Social Control<br />Functionalists- see the criminal justice system as operating to look after interests of society as a whole. Without this control=anomie.<br />Marxists argue that the CJS operates to benefit the ruling class, law and police are both agents of the ruling class.<br />
  4. 4. Approaches cont..<br />Foucault (1977)- <br />Put the issue of social control at the centre of his writings, society is a battleground of competing interests. The key to gaining power is to have control over knowledge and the methods of achieving this.<br />Those who succeed in having their definition of knowledge accepted gain power and in turn will use this to enforce their view of the world. The CJS play an important part in enforcing these rules.<br />
  5. 5. Surveillance society Panopticon- Foucault<br />Foucault argued that discipline in society was like that of a panopiticon illusion. <br />Originating from Jeremy Bentham's "Panopticon" design for prisons (which was unrealized in its original form, but nonetheless influential): in the Panopticon, a single guard can watch over many prisoners while the guard<br />remains unseen. Ancient prisons have been replaced by clear and visible ones, but Foucault cautions that "visibility is a trap." It is through this visibility, Foucault writes, that modern society exercises its controlling systems of power and knowledge (terms Foucault believed to be so fundamentally connected that he often combined them in a single hyphenated concept, "power-knowledge"). Increasing visibility leads to power located on an increasingly individualized level, shown by the possibility for institutions to track individuals throughout their lives. Foucault suggests that a "carceral continuum" runs through modern society, from the maximum security prison, through secure accommodation, probation, social workers, police, and teachers, to our everyday working and domestic lives. All are connected by the (witting or unwitting) supervision (surveillance, application of norms of acceptable behaviour) of some humans by others.<br />
  6. 6. Changes in Social Control<br />Stan Cohen (1985) has suggested key themes in the changing nature of the formal control in western societies.<br />Penetration- previously laws were made and haphazardly enforced by whatever authority was around at the time, society now seeks law to be penetrated throughout society, there is more conformity and control right through to the media and schools and even private companies.<br />Size and Density- people in control or have means of control is much larger then previously. This then leads them to process larger numbers of crime.<br />Identity and visibility- crime use to be public, now subtle forms of control CCTV, door staff at night clubs. Again drawing on the notion of a surveillance society. <br />
  7. 7. Cont.. Contemporary Social Control<br />Feeley and Simon- Actuarialism.<br />Feeley and Simon suggest another means to social control in today's age.<br />The stress of social control has changed form controlling deviants behaviour to controlling potentially deviant people<br />Therefore agencies work out who is the greatest risk deviant and act against them. <br />They extend Cohen's point on privatisation and argue that there is large amounts of surveillance which help profit companies.<br />
  8. 8. Punishment<br />A key component of social control is punishment, it allows us to see how far society goes to maintain social control.<br />Durkheim- societies can only exist if members share common values and a collective consciousness. A legal system is then put in place to create boundaries.<br />Mechanic societies------retribution<br />(common shared values are broken)<br />Organic (complex) societies- restitutive law<br />(go to prison to make mends for wrong doing.) <br />Marxist approaches<br />Rusche and Kircheimeragree that law reflects ruling class and go further stating punishment also reflects their interests.<br />Capitalism has allowed prisons to serve useful proposes, training workers in disciplines of long working hours poor conditions.<br />
  9. 9. cont<br />Foucault- punishment has changed over time.<br />Offenders were previously seen as having offended against god and others.<br />Aim of punishment now is to bring a person back into society<br />Having experts make a person fully internalise the need to conform<br />
  10. 10. The Police<br />
  11. 11. The main agency responsible for enforcement is the police.<br />There are two main positions in understanding the relationship of the police to society.<br />1. consensual approach- police having a close relationship with the local area being policed, the police are a reflection of active community helpers they are drawn from the community and reflect characteristics of common values. Individuals are caught due to complaints from the majority.<br />
  12. 12. 2. Conflict policing - this model has been suggested by Scraton (1985) who argues that police can be seen as an occupying force.<br />Imposed upon working class and ethnic- minority communities.<br />Young (1984) describes this as military style policing. Large number of officers patrolling areas in vehicles using advanced technology. <br />
  13. 13. Police Discretion<br />Reiner (1992) has suggested three ways of categorising police discretion<br />1. Individualistic- police has their own discretion, specific concerns and interests and applies it to the law accordingly. Gorman (1982) found that racist police officers were a lot harsher to ethnic minorities. <br />
  14. 14. 2. Cultural- police offercers are over whelmingly whit and male.<br />Have a very specific occupational culture<br />According to (Skolnick this has three main components.<br />I). Suspiciousness- as part of their training they are taught to discriminate between ‘decent’ and deviant people.<br />II). Internal solidarity and social isolation- spend a large amount of time with their peers, isolated form the public. They also rely on each other rather than others in order for support.<br />III).Conservatism- must abide by the law those who want to join hardly ever have apolitical strong attitude. <br />
  15. 15. Structural- this view comes from a Marxist approach, the very definition of law is biased in favour of the powerful, police officers definition of crime derives from their role as agents of control in a capitalist society. Morgan found that 55% of prisoners were unemployed, 30% were in manual 60% under 25 and 87% male. 12% African despite only 3% of society are from this background!<br />THINK AGE, CLASS, ETHNICITY! <br />