SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

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  • The 2 buts are 1) Fequency 2) Difficulty
  • Ie – they are all seen just for that one thing – ie murder, drug taking – other qualities are ignored.
  • The sun – reported a story on how some police forces arent classing broken windows as crime – is this a bid to cut down on recorded crime figures
  • Cognitive maps – people commit crime where they know
  • Socialisation Social control marginalisation
  • Govt like actuarys – they calculate risk of certain people being offenders and then put measure in place to control them.
  • SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

    1. 1. Crime & Deviance Revision LO: To make Crime & Deviance relevant – in order! To consider how Crime & Deviance relates to other substantive topic areas
    2. 2. Task 1 <ul><li>Using your laptops, research, find out about and relate to Crime & Deviance the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Ian Huntley – Master status; Thrills </li></ul><ul><li>Jerome Kerviel/ nick leeson – Occupational crime </li></ul><ul><li>Gangs/groups – subcultures; illegitimate opportunity structure </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen Lawrence – racial attack – what influence did it have </li></ul><ul><li>Bridgend suicide - ….. </li></ul><ul><li>Tony Martin – Durkheim – Changing values </li></ul><ul><li>Gary Newlove – communitarianism </li></ul>
    3. 3. Topc 1 Deviance & Control <ul><li>Durkheim – Positive aspects of crime </li></ul><ul><li>1) Reaffirming boundaries – eg newspaper footage of punishments; public stoning etc </li></ul><ul><li>2) Changing Values – Tony Martin, the farmer, shot and killed a 16yr old boy who was stealing from his house. Media was interested as many said it showed the british justice system supports criminals more than victims. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Social Cohesion – 9/11, London Bombings etc – community draws together at times of hardship </li></ul><ul><li>Negative aspects of crime </li></ul><ul><li>Anomie – Looting during storms in Chicago </li></ul>
    4. 4. Communities & Crime <ul><li>Etzioni – Communitarianism – Gary Newlove tried to take back control BUT got murdered </li></ul><ul><li>Social Capital – Putnam – The higher level of social capital there is ( ie – everybody knowing each other etc ), the lower crime levels – ‘Panorama –Anti-Social Behaviour’ – will it work? </li></ul>
    5. 5. Topic 2 - Policing, punishment & Control <ul><li>Cohen argues nature of control is changing: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Penetration – Law is taught in schools, media pass it on etc – penetrates society </li></ul><ul><li>2) Identity & Visibility – CCTV, tagging etc, private security – all newer forms of control – BUT – ‘Det Ch Insp Mick Neville said the system was an &quot;utter fiasco&quot; - with only 3% of London's street robberies being solved using security cameras.’ ( from BBC website ) – COULD you argue that it still controls, despite this stat???? ( or do people know it doesn’t work ) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Policing <ul><li>1) Consensual Approach – In some communities, the police are from the local community and they have a good rapport with them – eg moseley </li></ul><ul><li>2) Conflict Policing – In other communities they are seen as like an occupying force – like the enemy – eg Nechells </li></ul><ul><li>They are either friend of foe </li></ul>
    7. 7. Topic 3 - Strain & Subculture <ul><li>Merton & Strain – followin strains identified </li></ul><ul><li>Conformity – A person who goes to school and university but does not achieve their desire to have a big house and car </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation – Someone who achieves the aim of a big car & house by selling hooky clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Ritualism – Someone who thinks they are behaving in the ‘right way’, but are too blinkered in their view - eg bureaucrat </li></ul><ul><li>Retreatism – A drunk drug user on the streets </li></ul><ul><li>Rebellion – A religious fanatic/preacher of hate </li></ul>
    8. 8. Cloward & Ohlin – Illegitimate opportunity structure <ul><li>1) Criminal – Career criminals who work their way up the ladder </li></ul><ul><li>2) Conflict – B13 v B14; burger bar crew… </li></ul><ul><li>3) Drug using alcoholic </li></ul>
    9. 9. Cohen – Status Frustration <ul><li>Hoodies/Anti-Social Behaviour??? </li></ul>
    10. 10. Starter Task <ul><li>Find definitions for the following terms: </li></ul><ul><li>Status Frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Illegitimate opportunity structure </li></ul><ul><li>Anomie </li></ul><ul><li>Communitarianism </li></ul><ul><li>Social Capital </li></ul><ul><li>Canteen culture </li></ul><ul><li>Edgework </li></ul><ul><li>Strain </li></ul><ul><li>Subculture </li></ul>
    11. 11. Topic 4 Critical Criminologies <ul><li>Bonger/Individual Motivation – Mugging? Is this for thrills or out of desperation? </li></ul><ul><li>Vagrancy Laws – 1349 – A response to peasants call for higher wages following Black Death – low paid labour continued allowing the ruling class to continue their lifestyle. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Marxist Subculture <ul><li>Brake – Hoodies/Bikers/Skaters/Skinheads etc – are they showing disdain for capitalism by wearing anti-capitalist clothes. Does this ultimately fail. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Topic 5 – Labelling theory <ul><li>Moral Panic – Hoodies…..Are they really so bad? I’ve got one!! </li></ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul><ul><li>The Sun carries a story about every 4 months – ie Britain in Crisis – does this mean they’re no longer noteworthy </li></ul><ul><li>Society is so broken that nobody disagrees on things. Is it bad for people to hang around on street corners? </li></ul>
    14. 14. Master Status <ul><li>Tell me something about: </li></ul><ul><li>Ian Huntley </li></ul><ul><li>Fred West </li></ul><ul><li>Amy Winehouse </li></ul><ul><li>Pete Doherty </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of a better example?? </li></ul>
    15. 15. Topic 6 – Patterns of Crime <ul><li>Police recorded statistics: </li></ul><ul><li>The Sun - ‘Vandalising cars isnt a crime’… </li></ul><ul><li>Victim Surveys: </li></ul><ul><li>Mr Gupwell after being mugged ‘There were 6 of them, massive they were!’ </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Report Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Mr Gupwell ‘I mugged 6 people last night, cos im hard!’ </li></ul>
    16. 16. Topic 7 – Environmental Approaches <ul><li>‘ How did he get away?’ – A story of a citizen who gave chase after seeing someone get mugged in the street, but despite being a fast runner, got given the slip down some back alleyways……. </li></ul><ul><li>Whats this about </li></ul>
    17. 17. Nocturnal economy <ul><li>The lads that hang out by my local shops </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing hours –did it help or not? statistically before licensing laws ¾ of violent crime in urban areas occurs between 9pm-3am. Why is it all happening? </li></ul>
    18. 18. Topic 8 - Gender Issues <ul><li>Why do girls commit less crime? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have better role models? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you under more control than boys? (parental) </li></ul><ul><li>Are you more restricted by your lack of roles in life? ( does it make it harder to commit crime ?) </li></ul>
    19. 19. Connell/messerchmidt & normative masculinity <ul><li>Why has there been a spate of gang stabbings in the last few yrs? Is this an attempt to achieve normative masculinity in a gang? Its not natural or easy. </li></ul><ul><li>Could there be other ways of achieving it? Ie Male businessmen exerting their control in the office; Domestic violence over women? </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Are boys in gangs because they are in a state of drift and they join gangs to give them identity </li></ul>
    20. 20. Lyng – Male risk taking <ul><li>Is it just men though? What about Winona Ryder…and that other one! </li></ul>
    21. 21. Topic 9 – Occupational & Corporate Crime <ul><li>Jerome Kerviel – Occupational Crime – Portnoy – did he do it for the thrill? </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Crime – Watchdog – The company who cold calls people and says they ‘need a new aerial to switch over to digital’. - it’s a total lie – its not true therefore it harms the public – could it be anomie – the company cant achieve its goals by socially accepted means…. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Rewind…..to topic 8 – gender.. <ul><li>BBC NEWS | UK | Crime by girls rises by a quarter </li></ul>
    23. 23. Topic 10 – Ethnicity & Crime <ul><li>Gang stabbings – If we look on BBC website for news on recent stabbings, the majority are intra-racial </li></ul><ul><li>Macpherson Inquiry – 1993 – Stephen Lawrences murder – some evidence of institutional racism </li></ul><ul><li>Is it fair to blame ethnicity for high levels of afro-carribean crime? What did Fitzgerald discover about it? How can we link in theory & methods to his discovery </li></ul>
    24. 24. Topic 11 Criminology – realism to postmodernism <ul><li>Mayor Rudolf Giuliani – cut crime significantly by introducing ‘zero tolerance’ in New York. - This is right realism/right wing </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson – a broken window means what….. </li></ul>
    25. 25. On the left… <ul><li>Chek Whyte – Secret Millionaire – Salford. He had to choose how to spend his money, and he chose a poor area to regenerate…… </li></ul><ul><li>Young – Sociologists should help govt to control crime as it effects the poorer members of society, not as Marxists would argue, the ruling class. Money needs to be spent on helping these poorer communities who are the victims of the crime. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Late modernity <ul><li>ASBO’s – how do they deal with crime. </li></ul>
    27. 27. ‘Respect’ <ul><li>Scheff et al argue that when someone has low self-esteem they can burst into a fit of rage and anger. </li></ul><ul><li>Getting respect raises self-esteem, but usually getting it involves committing acts of extreme violence </li></ul>
    28. 28. Topic 12 - Suicide <ul><li>Durkheim felt this topic was v important as it can be used to provide an explanation for an act considered to be the opposite to social – therefore important to sociology </li></ul><ul><li>Egoistic – Mark thingy(?)..( BBC guy – what his name? Did he fail and therefore kill himself? </li></ul><ul><li>Altruistic – Suicide bomber – they believe they are killing themselves for others </li></ul><ul><li>Anomic – kurt cobain – was he bewildered by change? </li></ul><ul><li>Fatalistic – Harold Shipman – oppressive society – he lost the will to live? </li></ul>
    29. 29. Suicide & theory & methods <ul><li>Can we really study suicide? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the letters reliable – they are often intended for revenge purposes and are obviously objective </li></ul><ul><li>Often letters are found by family members but not passed on </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes notes arent left – in which case how do we definitely know it was suicide. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Parasuicide <ul><li>Often people take chance and decide to leave it to fate – if they survive they werent meant to die and vice versa ( Douglas & Atkinson ) </li></ul>
    31. 31. Suicide & the media <ul><li>Bridgend – many suggestions that people had committed suicide as a reaction to the media coverage of previous suicides etc etc. </li></ul>

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