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SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
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SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

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Transcript

  • 1. Designing a survey Issues to consider
  • 2. The benefits of ‘closed questions’ <ul><li>Researcher decides on the response categories </li></ul><ul><li>Limited categories for respondents to choose from </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone is asked the same questions (reliability) </li></ul><ul><li>These responses can can be counted (quantified) </li></ul><ul><li>These can be converted into percentages (%) </li></ul><ul><li>Trends and correlations can be made from these figures </li></ul>
  • 3. Question 1: Do you like school? <ul><li>YES  </li></ul><ul><li>NO  </li></ul>
  • 4. Why closed questions are preferred by Positivists <ul><li>Fixed response questions make the process more reliable and can be repeated by others </li></ul><ul><li>The approach is standardised and systematic – thus controlled and logical </li></ul><ul><li>Causal relationships can be identified </li></ul><ul><li>No opinions and bias can taint the responses </li></ul>
  • 5. Disadvantages of closed questions <ul><li>The responses lack validity </li></ul><ul><li>Words used in questions have different meanings to different people </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents are limited in what answers they can give </li></ul><ul><li>Questions can be leading </li></ul>(arguments from Interpretivist Sociologists)
  • 6. Open-Ended Questions <ul><li>No fixed response categories </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents have greater freedom in how they respond </li></ul><ul><li>Unlimited range of responses </li></ul><ul><li>Different questions asked of different respondents </li></ul><ul><li>Data is qualitative and loaded with meaning (higher validity) </li></ul>
  • 7. Question1 – What are your views on school? <ul><li>_____________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>_____________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>_____________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you feel this way? _______________ </li></ul><ul><li>_____________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>_____________________________________ </li></ul>
  • 8. Why open-ended questions are preferred by Interactionists <ul><li>Respondents can explain their meanings more fully (validity) </li></ul><ul><li>There are no limits on the responses given </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents can introduce their own ideas and issues </li></ul>
  • 9. Disadvantages of open-ended questions <ul><li>Any response can be given – it is impossible to categorise responses </li></ul><ul><li>If respondents can introduce their own questions – not all respondents are asked the same – can’t compare (weak reliability) </li></ul>
  • 10. Problems in designing questions <ul><li>Using technical language </li></ul><ul><li>Leading questions </li></ul><ul><li>Producing ‘meaningful categories’ </li></ul><ul><li>Long questions - boredom </li></ul>
  • 11. Issues to consider <ul><li>How well does a respondent understand a question? </li></ul><ul><li>Are they telling the truth? </li></ul><ul><li>Do respondents really do as they tell you they do? </li></ul>
  • 12. Interviewer Bias <ul><li>Interviews are never neutral </li></ul><ul><li>How does a respondent perceive an interviewer (age/class/ethnicity/gender)? </li></ul><ul><li>The respondents may give researcher the answers they think they want to hear </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents may lie – sabotage </li></ul>

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