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SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
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  • 1. AS Education and Methods Revision pack: Unit 2 Examinable SkillsAO1: Knowledge and Understanding (48% of all marks available) • Knowledge of the subject or topic must be accurate • Must have sufficient depth of knowledge • To UNDERSTAND the material, you must be able to select the right knowledge to answer the question • Must use SOCIOLOGICAL knowledge rather than ‘common sense’ knowledgeCan you say you know and understand the following? 1
  • 2. AS Education and Methods Revision pack: Unit 2AO1 Yes I know what they mean No I don’t and therefore need to revise what they mean(a )Sociological concepts and theory: You must know what theterms mean • Social order • Social change • Conflict • Consensus • Social structure • Social action • The role of values • Relationship between sociology and social policy(b ) Methods of sociological enquiry. You must understand therange of methods and sources of data used in studying families • Primary and secondary data • Analysis of quantitative and qualitative data • Factors influencing the design and conduct of sociological research • Practical, theoretical and ethical issues in sociological research(c ) Themes: you must understand how these themes apply toeach topic and the global context • Socialisation • Culture • Identity • Social differentiation (eg age, ethnicity, gender) • Power and stratification (eg Social class)AO2: Application, interpretation, analysis and evaluation (52% of all marks)AO2: can I do the following? Yes I can No I can not and therefore need to do revision notes on thisIdentify the relevant theoriesthat could be applied to eachfamily topicSelect and apply a range ofsociological concepts/sociological 2
  • 3. AS Education and Methods Revision pack: Unit 2languageSelect and apply empirical studiesto the question askedIdentify contemporary examplesand policies that link to the topicAnalyse and evaluate the methodsused in studies to collect andrecord evidenceState the strengths of asociological theoryState the weaknesses of asociological theoryOrganise my answer so that itreads structured and focusedTrigger evaluation sentence starters Other evidence from However, another research suggests…. perspective argues…… A different argument put forward is…. On the other hand….. A criticism of this is In support …. of this, X__ argues that The Examination Paper • 2 hour • Carries a total of 90 marks • This unit is worth 60% of the total marks available for AS Sociology (30% of total marks for A level)Question structureQuestion 1 or Question 4: You are advised to spend approximately 50 minutes on this questionQuestion 2 or Question 5: You are advised to spend approximately 25 minutes on this questionQuestion 3 or Question 6: You are advised to spend approximately 40 minutes on this question. 3
  • 4. AS Education and Methods Revision pack: Unit 2YOU WILL BE ANSWERING QUESTIONS 1, 2 AND 3. DO NOT ANSWER ANY OF THE HEALTHQUESTIONS!!!!!!!There will be two items on the paper, you will need to relate to the items and refer to them in essays.DO NOT START WRITING UNTIL YOU HAVE READ THE ITEMS.Underline key words and write trigger words around the item to help you.Part A: Only Education (Spend 50 mins doing)Question (1a) • 2 marks • Write a sentence to define the key word. (use an example to help explain the term if you need to )Question (1b) • 6 marks • usually asks for 3 reasons for something • give 3 distinct reasons • lay out your answer clearly in three parts (bullet point/ new line for each point)Question (1c) • 12 marks • 8 marks for AO1 and 4 for AO2 • Usually says ‘outline’ something • You must give lots of AO1 but give some AO2 at the end. • Set this out like a mini-essay, it cannot be done in bullet points!!!!Question (1d) • 20 marks, AO1=8, AO2=12 • Usually ‘assess’ (weigh up arguments for and against an issue, provide critical judgements and reach a conclusion.’) • Be asked to refer to the item • Introduction and conclusion • Sociological material (theory; language; studies) connected to the question set • Elaborate and explain the points you are making * The view referred to in item a is that…….. • Well organised and focused to the question set * Item b reflects a Feminist perspective that has been criticised because….. • Analyse and evaluate * Item b shows evidence of….Part B: Education with Methods (Spend 25 mins on) * a particular strength of the evidence in item b is … * Item a states ………………… this means that …….. Question (2) • There is an item, read it and refer to it • 20 marks • AO1 = 8, AO2= 12 • Normally asks you to ‘assess’ a use of method in the application of studying an area of education. This could be class, gender, ethnicity or social policy. • As you need to ‘assess’ the method, you must say the problems and strengths. Think PETS and refer this one back to education all the time. • Introduction and conclusion needed. 4
  • 5. AS Education and Methods Revision pack: Unit 2 • PERCLPart C: MethodsQuestion (3a) • 2 marks • Write a sentence to define the key word. (use an example to help explain the term if you need to )Questions (3b and 3c) • 4 marks • Usually asks for 2 reasons why a sociologist would use that methods, strengths or limitations of the methods, or what that method/sample could be used to study • Give 2 distinct answers • If in doubt give more than 2, the examiner will mark the 2 that are correct • Write a sentence about each pointQuestion (3d) • 20 marks • AO1= 10, AO2= 10 • Usually ‘examine’ – so you need to consider evidence and sociological studies/concepts • Introduction and conclusion needed • Elaborate and expand on AO1 points • Include evaluation as the marks are equal • Balance the AO1 and AO2 as they have the same number of marks available!!!! • Make sure the answer is well focused and linked back to the questionQuestion (1a): What is meant by ………………………. Social Solidarity Value Consensus Meritocracy Capitalism Hidden Curriculum Anti-school subculture 5
  • 6. AS Education and Methods Revision pack: Unit 2 Social policy Marketisation Tri-Partite Act 11+ Grammar School Secondary Modern Comprehensive 1988 Education Reform Act Curriculum 2000 New Vocationalism Cultural Deprivation Material Deprivation Cultural Capital Elaborated Code Restricted Code Labelling Self fulfilling prophecy Institutionalised Racism Ethnocentric Curriculum Swann Report Peer pressure1B mark questions: Out of 6• Suggest three ways in which someone in a top job can attempt to ensure their sons and daughters attain a position of similar status.• Identify and explain three explanations for the underachievement of boys.• Suggest three reasons why children from working class backgrounds tend to do less well in school than those from middle class backgrounds.• Suggest three ways in which schools act as agencies of socialization. 6
  • 7. AS Education and Methods Revision pack: Unit 2• Suggest three criticisms of the Marxist perspective on education.• Suggest three functions that education may perform for individuals and or society.• Suggest three criticisms of the Tri-partite Act.• Suggest three ways in which schools are ‘based on meritocratic principles’.• Identify three features of postmodern society.1c mark questions: Out of 12AO1=8AO2=4• Outline some of the reasons why boys are underachieving.• Outline the New Right perspective on education.• Outline the successes of recent social policy (policy from 1997).• Outline some of the reasons why the working class are underachieving.• Outline the Marxist perspective on education.• Outline the effects of the 11+.• Outline why some ethnic minorities are underachieving.• Outline the Interactionists perspective on education.• Outline the criticisms of ‘new Vocationalism’.1d mark questions: 20 marksAO1=8AO2=12• Evaluate the idea that boys underachievement in education is a result of the socialization process.• Assess the Marxist view that education benefits the ruling class.• Assess the view that it is schools themselves that are the cause of differences in achievement amongst social class and ethnic groups. 7
  • 8. AS Education and Methods Revision pack: Unit 2• Assess the view that working-class under-achievement in education is the result of home circumstances and family background.• Assess the view that boys are underachieving in education.• Assess the view that the main thrust of educational reform has been to increase the control of education by those outside the education system.• Assess the view that children from ethnic minorities under-achieve in education because of discrimination and stereotyping in schools.• Assess the functionalist view that schools serve to meet the interests of both the individual and society.• Assess Sociological explanations of the impact of recent government policies on educational choice and standards in Britain.• New Labours educational policies were intended to reverse the inequalities of the previous regime and create greater social justice. Evaluate the success of there policies.• Examine the ways in which processes within schools may lead to differences in achievement between social groups.• Assess the view that pupil subcultures are the key to understanding educational underachievement.Question 2: 20 marksAO1=8AO2=12• Assess the strengths and limitations of using experiments for the study of labelling in schools.• Assess the strengths and limitations of participant observation for the study of labelling in schools.• Assess the strengths and limitations of questionnaires in the study of social class and educational attainment. 8
  • 9. AS Education and Methods Revision pack: Unit 2• Assess the strengths and limitations of questionnaires in the study of gender and education.• Assess the strengths and limitations of using secondary sources to research ethnicity and education.• Assess the strengths and limitations of using interviews to study gender and education.• Assess the strengths and limitations of using questionnaires for the study of parental attitudes to education.• Assess the strengths and limitations of unstructured interviews for the study of pupil subcultures.• Assess the strengths and limitations of official statistics for the study of ethnicity and educational achievement.Question (3a): What is meant by ………………………. Validity Reliability Generalisation Ethical issues Practical issues Theoretical issues 9
  • 10. AS Education and Methods Revision pack: Unit 2 Representative Positivism Interpretivism Bias Objectivity Hawthorne Effect Sampling methods Operationalising concepts Social Surveys Questionnaires Interviews Experiments Observation Overt Covert Secondary data Triangulation Content Analysis Official Statistics Quantitative Data Qualitative DataQuestions 3b and 3c: 4 marks• Suggest one advantage and one disadvantage of using group interviews rather than one to one interviews in sociological research.• Suggest one advantage and one disadvantage if researchers establishing a rapport with their interviewees.• Explain the difference between structured and unstructured interviews.• Suggest one advantage and one disadvantage of using questionnaires in sociological research. 10
  • 11. AS Education and Methods Revision pack: Unit 2• Suggest one advantage and one disadvantage of using participant observation in sociological research.• Explain the difference between covert and overt participation.• Suggest 2 ethical issues that sociologists may face in studying people.• Suggest 2 problems with positivist methodology.• Explain the difference between positivist and Interactionist methodology.• Suggest two social factors that could be used in the creation of a stratified sample, apart from social class.• Suggest two reasons why sociologists might use structured interviews.• Suggest two criticisms of field experiments.• Explain the difference between the dependent variable and the independent variable in an experiment.• Explain the difference between a sample and a sampling frame.• Suggest two ways in which sociologists can improve the validity of interviews as a source of data.• Suggest two ethical problems of using covert observation.• Suggest two reasons why participant observation may produce valid data.• Suggest two examples of personal documents• Identify two problems of using documents in sociological research.• Explain the difference between reliability and validity.• Suggest one advantage and one disadvantage of life histories.Question 2d: 20 marksAO1=10AO2=10• Examine the problems sociologists may find when using participant observation in their research.• Examine the reasons why some sociologists choose not to use experiments when conducting research.• Examine the reasons why some sociologists choose not to use questionnaires when conducting research. 11
  • 12. AS Education and Methods Revision pack: Unit 2• Examine the reasons why some sociologists choose to use structured interviews when conducting their research.• Examine the reasons why some sociologists choose to use official statistical when conducting research.• Examine the ways in which practical, ethical and theoretical factors may influence sociologists’ choice of research methods.Who said what (Education)???? Durkheim Parsons Davis and Moore Bowles and Gintis Althusser Chubb and Moe 12
  • 13. AS Education and Methods Revision pack: Unit 2 Usher and Thompson Becker Hargreaves Rosenthal and Jacobson Bourdieu Willis Bernstein Douglas Labov Reay Sharp Spender Mac an Ghaill Mitsos Tikly Modood Sewell GilbornWho said what (Methods)???? Ackroyd and Hughes (1981) Social Surveys Dobash and Dobash Interviews Labov Interviews 13
  • 14. AS Education and Methods Revision pack: Unit 2 Willis Group Interviews Bandura Lab Experiment Rosenthal and Jacobson Field Experiment Laud Humphreys Participant Observation Paul Willis Case Study Durkheim Official Statistics Dobash and Dobash Official Statistics The Glasgow Media Group Content Analysis Valery Hey Secondary Qualitative dataPerspectives Strengths WeaknessesFunctionalismMarxism 14
  • 15. AS Education and Methods Revision pack: Unit 2New RightPost ModernInteractionismPositivismInterpretivism 15

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