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SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
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SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

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  • 1. Neo-Marxist Perspectives Crime and deviance
  • 2. The two branches
    • New Criminology
    • (early 1970s)
    New Left Realism (early 1980s)
  • 3. NEW CRIMINOLOGY
    • Critical of traditional Marxism for being too deterministic….too structural…ignoring individual choice
    • Devised a theory that blended Marxism and Labelling theories
    Taylor, Walton & Young (1973)
  • 4. Background Context
    • In the early 1970s, there were many examples of ‘resistance to capitalist oppression’
    • eg) anti-Vietnam demos, student protests, union strikes, black power, civil rights protestors, gay liberation, feminist movement
  • 5. context continued..
    • This could be seen as a ‘crisis of hegemony’ (Gramsci)
    • There was a degree of choice in society – a deliberate resistance
    • Capitalism was losing its ideological control of society (a rise of proletarian consciousness/a decline of false consciousness)
  • 6. Liberation MAN!! Right on!
  • 7.
    • Crime is a deliberate act with ‘political motives’
    • Many crimes were against property – this could be seen as the re-distribution of wealth (like Robin Hood)
    • People were struggling to change their society.
  • 8. The ideas at the heart of the New Criminology
    • Blend structural/social action perspectives for a ‘full’ picture of society
    • We need to think about the structural context of criminal behaviour (and its treatment by society)
    • We need to think about the interpretivistic dimension of criminality in society.
  • 9. ‘ A Fully Social Theory’ (of deviance)
    • They proposed that deviance needed to be
    • explored in terms of ….
    • social structure
    • (institutions/culture/economy)
    • and in terms of ….
    • interaction
    • (meanings/self concept/societal
    • reaction)
  • 10. 1. The Wider Origins of the Act
    • The Capitalist system = wider society.
    • The economic structure of society is
    • the root of all actions in that society.
  • 11. 2. The Immediate Origins of the Deviant Act
    • The motivation for an individual to commit a crime.
    • The actual causes that are at the heart of an individual choosing to commit a specific crime.
    • eg) poverty, revenge, ‘the thrill’
  • 12. 3. The Act Itself
    • Why should a person choose to commit a particular type of crime?
    • What does the act ‘mean’ to the criminal?
  • 13. 4. The Immediate Origins of the Societal Reaction
    • Why do people respond in different ways to a particular deviant act?
    • eg) do the police respond differently to black offenders?
  • 14. 5. The wider origins of deviant reaction
    • This is all about the wider background to law creation and enforcement.
    • Involves the role of the media too!
    • eg) what circumstances led to make types of
    • picketing illegal.
    • why are tobacco and alcohol products
    • legal, despite their harm to health?
  • 15. 6. The outcome of the societal reaction on deviant’s further actions
    • We need to understand how the labelled criminals respond to their labelling.
    • self concept/master status/subculture
  • 16. 7. The nature of the deviant process as a whole
    • This point just accepts that deviance is a complex process.
    • It cannot be explained by one simple ‘perspective-driven’ theory!
  • 17. The CCCS
    • Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies
    • (Birmingham University)
    • Focus – symbolic resistance
    • - subculture
  • 18. What is symbolic resistance?
    • The oppressed do not always have to challenge the powerful in an ‘obvious way’
    • They can challenge the authority and ideology of the powerful through symbolic gestures
    • These are acts which carry a particular message/embedded with meaning (although sometimes implicit/hidden)
  • 19.  
  • 20. CCCS – Case Studies
    • Much research was done by the CCCS.
    • We will focus on their work into:
      • Ethnicity and deviance (West Indian)
      • Youth Subcultures
  • 21. Paul Gilroy – The Empire Strikes Back
    Crime by young West Indians is a political response to a racist society and oppression
  • 22.
    • Crime by ‘black youths’ is not due to poor socialisation or criminal subculture
  • 23. His argument…
    • When black immigrants were brought to Britain..they came with the…
    • ‘ legacies of political, ideological and ethnic struggles in Africa,the Caribbean and India’.
    • He notes the history of white oppression in the colonies and how ‘ex-colonials still bear the scars of imperialist violence’ .
  • 24.
    • Therefore…
    • Black youth are in conflict with their white oppressors in modern Britain.
    • This is part of their legacy!
    • Black youth need to ‘win space’ and to overcome the pains of racism in life.
    • Rebellion and deviance are forms of symbolic resistance – fighting back.
  • 25. eg..Rastafarian subculture
    • The interpretation of Biblical passages in the Old Testament to tell the tale of the passage of oppression to Freedom!
    • Distorting ‘white religion’ and turned it against the oppressor (like Patois Creole with English language)
    Exodus Babylon
  • 26.
    Lion of Judah Haile Selassie (the second coming of Christ?) ONE LOVE I and I Irie
  • 27. Rasta – symbolic resistance
    • The Bible – the stories –the prophet – anti-slavery
    • The language – a ‘bastardisation’ of the English language
    • The style – the hair (spiritual) but an exaggerated reminder of slavery
    • Ganja – ‘wisdom weed’ – bring people spiritually closer to God/inner peace
  • 28. Black youth and crime
    • Gilroy argued….
    • Criminal activities maybe another form of political resistance.
    • Stealing from the oppressor (mugging/burglary)
  • 29. But… ‘black criminality is a myth’
    • He claims that Black youths are also no more prone to committing crime than anybody else
    • During the ‘mugging scare’ in the 1970s – black youths faced harassment from the police (selective policing/bias)
    • racist ‘suss laws’
  • 30.
    • Gilroy emphasises that due to
    • a crisis of capitalism (and high
    • levels of unemployment) –
    • Britain faced social problems
    • which black youths were
    • focused on as ‘the source of
    • the problem’
  • 31.
    • Critique of Gilroy
    • 1. Stuart Hall – Gilroy overemphasises that crime is a political struggle (if so, most victims would be white, rich people).
    • 2. Lea & Young – the idea of black youth committing crime as a continuation of an anti-colonial struggle is unrealistic.
    • 3. Lea & Young – racist selective policing is not so great as most crime is reported to the police..and not discovered!
  • 32. Stuart Hall – Policing the Crisis (1979)
    • Explores the
    • economic crisis in
    • 1970s UK and
    • issues
    • surrounding
    • immigration
  • 33.
    • 1950s/60s – UK welcomed immigrants from the Commonwealth – to fill essential,low-paid, semi-skilled jobs.
    • By the 1970s – unemployment increased in UK.
    • Black employees were first to lose jobs.
    Immigration and unemployment
  • 34.
    • New jobs given to white applicants.
    • Black workers seen as ‘taking jobs’ and being blamed for the unemployment situation.
    • Now they were being accused of abusing the welfare benefits system!
    • A DOUBLE WHAMMY!
  • 35. Rising Racism in UK
    • Black Britons were blamed for the rising economic problems and poverty (SCAPEGOATS).
    • Politicians like Enoch Powell began to make speeches against a multi-cultural Britain.
    • Right wing (neo-nazi) parties were on the increase, like the National Front (NF)
  • 36. The effects of structural racism
    • Basically – many Black Britons were now being socially outcast as scapegoats
    • They were also facing poverty, due to unemployment (from losing jobs and struggling to get re-employed)
    • Some of the unemployed turned to crime to survive ( a rise in street crime/muggings/ dealing)
  • 37. In short….. Black crime was being driven by economic strain/poverty and not a symbolic resistance!
  • 38. The Mugging Scare
    • Hall applies the deviance amplification cycle to this issue.
    • Society defined a new type of crime ‘mugging’ (the media, police, judges and politicians) wanted this threat dealt with.
    • THE STREETS WERE NO LONGER SAFE!
  • 39.
    • Mugging itself wasn’t a new phenomenon. In Victorian England there were ‘footpads’ who stole form people in the street.
    • Hall notes that this crime was re-marketed, with a new image
    • It fed into a moral panic – designed to help people address their fears and concerns about the crisis in society.
  • 40. Remember all those social problems and resistance
    • Anti-Vietnam demos
    • Gay liberation
    • Women’s movement
    • Student protests
    • IRA threats
    • Trade Unions/Strikes
  • 41. Mr Deakin’s Dad Mr Deakin’s uncle
  • 42. Hall argues…
    • In the early 1970s – a crisis of hegemony.
    • The working class were no longer in a state of false consciousness.
    • Capitalism needed to regain control.
    • The answer was to find a new way to regain order – to identify a scapegoat to blame.
  • 43. Ring any bells ? Pick a group…blame them for the problem…then go for them with force
  • 44.
    • The scapegoat in the UK – were young Black Britons ( a folk devil)
    • The media stirred headlines that treated ‘black muggers’ as the threat to social order ( a moral panic)
    • Public wanted a solution (societal reaction)
    • Inner cities were flooded with extra ‘heavy handed police’
  • 45. Selective policing
    • Aggressive – STOP AND SEARCH (SUSS).
    • Many arrests justified the policy.
    • The public felt more at ease that the social problems were being dealt with.
  • 46. So, overall…
    • Moral panic and heavy policing were linked to the social and economic crisis in capitalism.
    • Black crime was happening because of poverty (and racism) caused by capitalism.
    • The process of selective policing and moral panic fed a deviance amplification spiral.
  • 47. Critique of Hall
    • Downes (1988)
    • - Hall is contradictory – on the one hand they are doing more crime and on the other it’s the fault of the police and media.
    • - The link between moral panic and crisis in capitalism is weak.
    • - Overemphasises police racism.
  • 48. Studies of Youth Culture
    • The skinheads (late 1960s)
    • Clarke argued that the skinhead style emerged as a result of changes in social structure in the late 1960s…the slum clearance and the breaking up of long-term working class communities.
  • 49. From this To this
  • 50. Symbolism in the skinhead style
    • The skinhead style was symbolic of an ultra-working class culture from the 1930s
    • grandad shirts braces
    • shaved head doc marten boots
    • union jack jeans

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