Theories
<ul><li>Understand the functionalist, Marxist and different types of feminist perspectives of the family </li></ul><ul><li...
 
<ul><li>How does the family fit into wider society? </li></ul><ul><li>We will now look at the role or purpose of the famil...
<ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><li>Norms </li></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><li>Social order </li></ul><ul><li>Express...
<ul><li>Argue that society is based on a value consensus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set of shared norms and values </li></ul><...
What similarities can you see between society and an organism such as the human body? What differences are there between t...
<ul><li>Look out of the window </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the view from an ENVIRONMENTAL point of view </li></ul><ul><li>D...
<ul><li>The family is seen, by Functionalists, as a particularly important subsystem </li></ul><ul><li>Murdock (1949)  arg...
<ul><li>Argues the practicality of the nuclear family as a way of meeting these four needs explains why it is universal (f...
<ul><li>Marxists and feminists argue that functionalism neglects conflict and exploitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feminists...
<ul><li>The family may meet other needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Welfare, military, political, religious functions </li></ul...
<ul><li>Two basic types of society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern industrial society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional ...
<ul><li>A geographically mobile workforce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People need to move to where the jobs are </li></ul></ul><...
<ul><li>It is for this reason that Parsons argues that the nuclear family is better equipped than the extended family to m...
<ul><li>The pre-industrial family was a multi-functional unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A unit of production </li></ul></ul><u...
<ul><li>The modern nuclear family comes to specialise in performing just two essential or ‘irreducible’ functions: </li></...
<ul><li>Proletariat </li></ul><ul><li>Bourgeoisie </li></ul><ul><li>Ruling class ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Exploitation <...
<ul><li>Functionalists see society as based on value consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Marxists see society as based on an unequ...
<ul><li>The key factor, according to Marxists, in shaping society is the mode of production – who controls and owns societ...
<ul><li>Marx called the earliest, classless society ‘primitive communism’. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No private property </li>...
<ul><li>Monogamy became essential because of the inheritance of private property – men had to be sure of the paternity of ...
<ul><li>Marxists argue that only through the overthrow of capitalism and private ownership of the means of production will...
<ul><li>Family today performs key ideological functions for capitalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideology = set of ideas or be...
<ul><li>Eli Zaretsky (1976) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The family also performs an ideological function by offering an apparent...
<ul><li>Capitalism exploits the labour of its workers    selling the products for more than the pay of the workers </li><...
<ul><li>Marxists assume the nuclear family is dominant    ignores the wide variety of family structures </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Reserve army of labour </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Critical view of the family </li></ul><ul><li>Oppresses women </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal division of labour </li></...
<ul><li>Campaign against sexual discrimination and for equal rights and opportunities for women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Argu...
<ul><li>Gradual progress </li></ul><ul><li>Men are doing more manual labour </li></ul><ul><li>Way parents socialise their ...
<ul><li>Fail to challenge the underlying causes of women’s oppression and for believing that changes in the law or attitud...
<ul><li>Main problem is capitalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women reproduce the labour force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U...
<ul><li>Argue that all societies have been founded on patriarchy </li></ul><ul><li>The key division in society is between ...
<ul><li>The patriarchal system needs to be overturned, particularly the family </li></ul><ul><li>They argue the only way t...
<ul><li>Liberal feminist  Jenny Somerville (2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radical feminists fail to recognise that women’s p...
<ul><li>These argue that every individual, and every woman has a different experience of the family </li></ul><ul><li>Blac...
<ul><li>They all assume the traditional nuclear family is the dominant family type </li></ul><ul><li>They are all structur...
 
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SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

  1. 1. Theories
  2. 2. <ul><li>Understand the functionalist, Marxist and different types of feminist perspectives of the family </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to analyse the similarities and differences between these perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to evaluate the usefulness of these perspectives on the family </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>How does the family fit into wider society? </li></ul><ul><li>We will now look at the role or purpose of the family and what it does for its members and society </li></ul><ul><li>‘ what are the functions of the family?’ </li></ul><ul><li>Functionalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A consensus perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marxism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feminism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender conflict </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><li>Norms </li></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><li>Social order </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive role </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental role </li></ul><ul><li>Primary socialisation </li></ul><ul><li>Biological analogy </li></ul><ul><li>Dysfunction </li></ul><ul><li>Functional prerequisites </li></ul><ul><li>Family ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Dark side of the family </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Argue that society is based on a value consensus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set of shared norms and values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows individuals to cooperate harmoniously to meet societies needs and achieve shared goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Society is made up of parts that depend on each other e.g. the family, education system and the economy </li></ul><ul><li>Often compared to a biological organism </li></ul>
  6. 7. What similarities can you see between society and an organism such as the human body? What differences are there between the two?
  7. 8. <ul><li>Look out of the window </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the view from an ENVIRONMENTAL point of view </li></ul><ul><li>Describe it from an ARCHITECTURAL point of view </li></ul><ul><li>Describe it from a FUNCTIONAL point of view </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>The family is seen, by Functionalists, as a particularly important subsystem </li></ul><ul><li>Murdock (1949) argues the family performs four essential functions to meet the needs of society: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stable satisfaction of the sex drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduction of the next generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socialisation of the young </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meeting its members’ economic needs </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Argues the practicality of the nuclear family as a way of meeting these four needs explains why it is universal (found in all human societies) </li></ul><ul><li>Some argue they could be performed equally well through other institutions or non-nuclear family structures </li></ul><ul><li>Marxists and feminists reject this ‘rose-tinted’ view </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Marxists and feminists argue that functionalism neglects conflict and exploitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feminists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See the family as serving the needs of men </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marxists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Argue it meets the needs of capitalism, not those family members or society as a whole </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>The family may meet other needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Welfare, military, political, religious functions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The functions it performs will depend on the type of society in which it is found </li></ul><ul><li>The functions the family has to perform will affect its ‘shape’ or structure </li></ul><ul><li>Parsons (1955) argues there are two types of family structure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended family (three generations living under one roof) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Two basic types of society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern industrial society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional pre-industrial society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The nuclear family fits the needs of industrial society and is the dominant family type in that society; the extended family fits the needs of the pre-industrial society </li></ul><ul><li>Post industrial revolution (late 18 th C onwards) - extended  nuclear </li></ul><ul><li>The society had different needs </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>A geographically mobile workforce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People need to move to where the jobs are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parsons argues it is easier for the compact two-generation nuclear family, with just dependent children, to move </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A socially mobile workforce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern industrial society is based on constantly evolving science and technology so requires skilled technically competent workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential that talented people are able to win promotion and take on the most important jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status is achieved  makes social mobility possible </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>It is for this reason that Parsons argues that the nuclear family is better equipped than the extended family to meet the needs of industrial society </li></ul><ul><li>The result of this is the mobile nuclear family which is structurally isolated from its extended kin without binding obligations towards them (unlike the pre-industrial extended family) </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>The pre-industrial family was a multi-functional unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A unit of production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A unit of consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore more self-sufficient </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Parsons argues that when society industrialises the family not only changes its structure but also loses some of its functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family ceases to be a unit of production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family becomes a unit of consumption only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loses most of its other functions to other institutions such as schools and the health service </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>The modern nuclear family comes to specialise in performing just two essential or ‘irreducible’ functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary socialisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilisation of adult personalities </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Proletariat </li></ul><ul><li>Bourgeoisie </li></ul><ul><li>Ruling class ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Alienation </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalist </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Economic determinism </li></ul><ul><li>False class consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Oppression </li></ul><ul><li>Monogamous nuclear family </li></ul><ul><li>Unit of consumption </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Functionalists see society as based on value consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Marxists see society as based on an unequal conflict between two social classes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The capitalist class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The working class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marxists see all societies institutions, such as the education system, media, religion and the state, along with the family as helping to maintain class inequality and capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>The functions of the family are performed purely for the benefit of the capitalist system </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>The key factor, according to Marxists, in shaping society is the mode of production – who controls and owns societies productive forces (tools, machinery, raw materials, land and labour) </li></ul><ul><li>In modern society, it is the capitalist class that owns and controls these means of production </li></ul><ul><li>As the mode of production evolves, so too does the family </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Marx called the earliest, classless society ‘primitive communism’. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No private property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All members of society owned the means of production communally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No family as such: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engels (1891; 1978) called the promiscuous horde </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Forces of production developed  societies wealth increased </li></ul><ul><li>Development of private property </li></ul><ul><li>Class emerged who were able to seize the means of production </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Monogamy became essential because of the inheritance of private property – men had to be sure of the paternity of their children to ensure the inheritance was legitimate </li></ul><ul><li>The rise of the monogamous nuclear family represented a ‘world historical defeat of the female sex’ – brought the woman’s sexuality under male control and turned her into a ‘mere instrument for the production of children’ </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Marxists argue that only through the overthrow of capitalism and private ownership of the means of production will women achieve liberation from patriarchal control </li></ul><ul><li>Classlessness = means of production are owned collectively, not privately </li></ul><ul><li>No more need for the patriarchal nuclear family (no need to transmit private property down the generations) </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Family today performs key ideological functions for capitalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideology = set of ideas or beliefs that justify inequality by accepting things are ‘fair’, natural or unchangeable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Socialising children into believing hierarchy and inequality are inevitable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is usually someone in charge (usually a man) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepared for a working life in which they accept orders from their capitalist employers </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Eli Zaretsky (1976) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The family also performs an ideological function by offering an apparent ‘haven’ from the harsh and exploitative world of capitalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This, however, is largely an illusion – the family cannot meet the needs of its members (based on the domestic servitude of women) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Capitalism exploits the labour of its workers  selling the products for more than the pay of the workers </li></ul><ul><li>The family plays a major role in this </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertisers urge families to consume the latest products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The media target children who use ‘pester power’  tweens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stigmatisation of children if they do not have the latest fashion </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Marxists assume the nuclear family is dominant  ignores the wide variety of family structures </li></ul><ul><li>Feminists argue that the Marxist emphasis on social class and capitalism underestimates the importance of gender inequalities within the family  the family is more beneficial to men than capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>Functionalists argue that Marxists ignore the benefits the family provides for its members such as intimacy and mutual support </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Reserve army of labour </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>Triple shift </li></ul><ul><li>Dual burden </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Dark side of the family </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Critical view of the family </li></ul><ul><li>Oppresses women </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal division of labour </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic violence against women </li></ul><ul><li>Gender inequality created by society (not natural or inevitable) </li></ul><ul><li>There are a number of versions of feminism  </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Campaign against sexual discrimination and for equal rights and opportunities for women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Argue women’s oppression is gradually being overcome through changes in attitudes and changes in the law e.g. Sex Discrimination Act (1975) which outlaws discrimination in employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believe we are moving toward greater equality  full equality depends on further reforms and changes in the attitudes and socialisation patterns of both sexes </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Gradual progress </li></ul><ul><li>Men are doing more manual labour </li></ul><ul><li>Way parents socialise their sons and daughters is more equal than in the past  similar aspirations </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Fail to challenge the underlying causes of women’s oppression and for believing that changes in the law or attitudes will be enough to bring equality  deep rooted social structure changes are needed </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>Main problem is capitalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women reproduce the labour force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unpaid domestic work, socialising the next generation of workers and maintaining and servicing the current one </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women absorb anger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fran Ansley (1972) states that women are the ‘takers of shit’ – absorb their husband’s frustration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For Marxists this explains male domestic violence against women </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women are a ‘reserve army’ of cheap labour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taken on when extra work is needed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When no longer needed can return to their primary role as unpaid domestic labour </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Argue that all societies have been founded on patriarchy </li></ul><ul><li>The key division in society is between men and women: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men are the enemy – the source of women’s oppression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The family and marriage are the key institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men benefit from women’s unpaid domestic labour and their sexual services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They dominate women through domestic and sexual violence or the threat of it </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>The patriarchal system needs to be overturned, particularly the family </li></ul><ul><li>They argue the only way to do this is through seperatism – women to live independently from men </li></ul><ul><li>Many radical feminists argue for ‘political lesbianism’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Idea that heterosexual relationships are like sleeping ‘with the enemy’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germaine Greer (2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of all female (matrilocal) households </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>Liberal feminist Jenny Somerville (2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radical feminists fail to recognise that women’s position has improved greatly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better access to divorce, job opportunities, control over fertility, ability to choose whether to marry or cohabit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separatism is unlikely to work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heterosexual attraction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She does recognise that women have yet to achieve full equality </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>These argue that every individual, and every woman has a different experience of the family </li></ul><ul><li>Black feminists argue that by looking at the family mainly as a source of oppression, white feminists neglect black racial oppression </li></ul><ul><li>Black feminists see the family as a source of support and resistance against racism </li></ul><ul><li>Other feminists argue that women still experience a greater risk of sexual violence, low pay </li></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>They all assume the traditional nuclear family is the dominant family type </li></ul><ul><li>They are all structural theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assume families and their members are simply passive puppets manipulated by the structure of society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociologists influenced by the social action view and postmodernism reject this view – ignore that we have this choice </li></ul></ul>

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