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  • 1.  Know the main changes in partnerships including marriage, divorce, cohabitation and civil partnerships as well as one-person and extended family households  Know the main changes in childbearing and childrearing, including births outside of marriage, lone- parent families and stepfamilies  Understand how these changes have contributed to greater family diversity  Be able to analyse and evaluate the reasons for these changes in families and households
  • 2.  Marriage  Separation  Divorce  Empty shell marriage  Irretrievable breakdown  Monogamy  Serial monogamy  Social stigma  Re-marriage  Cohabitation  Trial marriage  Single-hood  Divorce rate  Marriage rate  secularisation
  • 3.  What changes do you think have occurred to the family in recent times, if any?
  • 4.  In the past 30 or 40 years there have been some major changes in family and household patterns: ◦ Number of nuclear family households has fallen ◦ Divorce rates have increased ◦ Fewer first marriages, more re-marriages and people are marrying later in life ◦ More couples cohabiting ◦ Same-sex relationships legally recognised ◦ Women having fewer children/having them later ◦ More births outside of marriage ◦ More lone-parent families ◦ More people live alone ◦ More stepfamilies ◦ More couples without children
  • 5.  How is the concept of child-centredness reinforced or otherwise in this programme?  What other factors must be taken into account when looking at the consequences of divorce? E.g. economic factors  What percentage of fathers lose contact with their children within three years of divorcing?  What impact has divorce had on the children in the video?  How to Divorce without Screwing Up your Children.WM
  • 6.  Major factor  Most re-marriages involve a divorcee  Divorce creates both lone-parent families and one-person households
  • 7.  Since 1960s  increase in the number of divorces  Doubled between 1961 and 1969, doubled again 1972  Peaked in 1993 at 180,000  Since then numbers have fallen – 2001  157,000 (6x times higher than in 1961)  At this rate 40% of all marriages will end in divorce
  • 8.  7/10 petitions for divorce come from: ◦ females  1946  37% came from: ◦ women  Most common reason is ‘unreasonable behaviour’ of the: ◦ husband  However, more recently divorce rates have started declining:  Divorce Rate Lowest for 29 Years
  • 9.  Those that marry young  Have a child before they marry  Cohabit before marriage  Those where one or both partners were married before
  • 10.  Sociologists have stated the following reasons: ◦ Changes in the law ◦ Declining stigma and changing attitudes ◦ Secularisation ◦ Rising expectations of marriage ◦ Changes in the position of women
  • 11.  19th C Britain  divorce difficult (especially for women)  Now: ◦ Equalising the legal reasons for divorce between the sexes (1923) ◦ Widening the grounds for divorce ◦ Making divorce cheaper ◦ Tiger Woods Case
  • 12.  1923  sharp increase in the number of divorce petitions from women  1949  legal aid for divorce cases lowered the cost  Divorce rates have risen with every change in the law
  • 13.  Desertion ◦ One partner leaves the other but the couple remains legally married  Legal Separation ◦ Court separates the financial and legal affairs ◦ Stay married, not free to remarry  Empty Shell Marriage ◦ Married in name only and live under the same roof ◦ As divorce has become more easily accessible this has become less popular
  • 14.  Stigma  negative label  Mitchell and Goody (1997) ◦ An important change since the 1960s is the declining stigma attached to divorce  ‘normalises’ divorce  Misfortune rather than shameful
  • 15.  Decline in the influence of religion in society  Church attendance rates continue to decline  Traditional opposition of divorce by the church has less weight  2001 Census data ◦ 43% of young people with no religion were cohabiting ◦ 34% of Christians ◦ 17% of Muslims ◦ 10% of Sikhs
  • 16.  Functionalist Ronald Fletcher (1966) ◦ Higher expectations placed on marriage ◦ Less willing to tolerate an unhappy marriage  Ideology of romance (Mr and Mrs Right)  if love dies there is no point in marriage  In the past families were constructed mainly for economic reasons or of duty to one’s family
  • 17.  Allan and Crow (2001) ◦ ‘Love, personal commitment and intrinsic satisfaction are now seen as the cornerstones of marriage. The absence of these feelings is itself justification for ending the relationship.’  Functionalists take an optimistic view ◦ Point to the continuing popularity of marriage ◦ It has not been rejected as an institution ◦ Too ‘rosy’ a view?  Feminists ◦ The oppression of women in marriage is the main factor ◦ Functionalists fail to explain why it is mainly women rather than men that seek divorce.
  • 18.  Improvements in economic position ◦ Women today much more likely to be in paid work  47% in 1959  70% in 2005 ◦ Equal pay act & anti-discrimination law ◦ Girls’ greater success in education ◦ Availability of welfare benefits – women no longer have to be financially dependent on men
  • 19.  Arlie Hochschild (1997) argues that for many women, the home compares unfavourably with work ◦ At work the woman feels valued ◦ Men’s resistance to housework at home makes marriage less stable ◦ Both going to work leaves less time and energy to talk about issues together
  • 20.  Wendy Sigle-Rushton (2007) ◦ Working mothers more likely to divorce than traditional bread winning families ◦ However, where the husband is involved with chores, the likelyhood of divorce falls to the same levels as traditional bread winning families  Jessie Bernard (1976) ◦ Many women feel a growing dissatisfaction with patriarchal marriage ◦ Rising divorce rate + most petitions coming from women = feminist ideas – more confident about rejecting patriarchal oppression
  • 21.  Make notes from the yellow book (Haralambos) page 64. ◦ The consequences of divorce  Divorce and children  Divorce and society
  • 22.  Which religions now allow divorce and re- marriage and under which circumstances?  Try to find out about a range of churches ◦ Church of England ◦ Catholic ◦ Baptist ◦ Jehovas Witnesses ◦ Pentecostalism ◦ Non-Christian religions  Create a poster in publisher that can then be saved and put on the VLE