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SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • Know the main changes in partnerships including marriage, divorce, cohabitation and civil partnerships as well as one-person and extended family households
    • Know the main changes in childbearing and childrearing, including births outside of marriage, lone-parent families and stepfamilies
    • Understand how these changes have contributed to greater family diversity
    • Be able to analyse and evaluate the reasons for these changes in families and households
  • 3.  
  • 4.
    • Marriage
    • Separation
    • Divorce
    • Empty shell marriage
    • Irretrievable breakdown
    • Monogamy
    • Serial monogamy
    • Social stigma
    • Re-marriage
    • Cohabitation
    • Trial marriage
    • Single-hood
    • Divorce rate
    • Marriage rate
    • secularisation
  • 5.  
  • 6.
    • What changes do you think have occurred to the family in recent times, if any?
  • 7.
    • In the past 30 or 40 years there have been some major changes in family and household patterns:
      • Number of nuclear family households has fallen
      • Divorce rates have increased
      • Fewer first marriages, more re-marriages and people are marrying later in life
      • More couples cohabiting
      • Same-sex relationships legally recognised
      • Women having fewer children/having them later
      • More births outside of marriage
      • More lone-parent families
      • More people live alone
      • More stepfamilies
      • More couples without children
  • 8.
    • How is the concept of child-centredness reinforced or otherwise in this programme?
    • What other factors must be taken into account when looking at the consequences of divorce? E.g. economic factors
    • What percentage of fathers lose contact with their children within three years of divorcing?
    • What impact has divorce had on the children in the video?
    • How to Divorce without Screwing Up your Children.WMV
  • 9.
    • Major factor
    • Most re-marriages involve a divorcee
    • Divorce creates both lone-parent families and one-person households
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12.
    • Since 1960s  increase in the number of divorces
    • Doubled between 1961 and 1969, doubled again 1972
    • Peaked in 1993 at 180,000
    • Since then numbers have fallen – 2001  157,000 (6x times higher than in 1961)
    • At this rate 40% of all marriages will end in divorce
  • 13.
    • 7/10 petitions for divorce come from:
      • females
    • 1946  37% came from:
      • women
    • Most common reason is ‘unreasonable behaviour’ of the:
      • husband
    • However, more recently divorce rates have started declining:
    • Divorce Rate Lowest for 29 Years
  • 14.
    • Those that marry young
    • Have a child before they marry
    • Cohabit before marriage
    • Those where one or both partners were married before
  • 15.
    • Sociologists have stated the following reasons:
      • Changes in the law
      • Declining stigma and changing attitudes
      • Secularisation
      • Rising expectations of marriage
      • Changes in the position of women
  • 16.
    • 19 th C Britain  divorce difficult (especially for women)
    • Now:
      • Equalising the legal reasons for divorce between the sexes (1923)
      • Widening the grounds for divorce
      • Making divorce cheaper
      • Tiger Woods Case
  • 17.
    • 1923  sharp increase in the number of divorce petitions from women
    • 1949  legal aid for divorce cases lowered the cost
    • Divorce rates have risen with every change in the law
  • 18.
    • Desertion
      • One partner leaves the other but the couple remains legally married
    • Legal Separation
      • Court separates the financial and legal affairs
      • Stay married, not free to remarry
    • Empty Shell Marriage
      • Married in name only and live under the same roof
      • As divorce has become more easily accessible this has become less popular
  • 19.
    • Stigma  negative label
    • Mitchell and Goody (1997)
      • An important change since the 1960s is the declining stigma attached to divorce
    • ‘ normalises’ divorce
    • Misfortune rather than shameful
  • 20.
    • Decline in the influence of religion in society
    • Church attendance rates continue to decline
    • Traditional opposition of divorce by the church has less weight
    • 2001 Census data
      • 43% of young people with no religion were cohabiting
      • 34% of Christians
      • 17% of Muslims
      • 10% of Sikhs
  • 21.
    • Functionalist Ronald Fletcher (1966)
      • Higher expectations placed on marriage
      • Less willing to tolerate an unhappy marriage
    • Ideology of romance (Mr and Mrs Right)  if love dies there is no point in marriage
    • In the past families were constructed mainly for economic reasons or of duty to one’s family
  • 22.
    • Allan and Crow (2001)
      • ‘ Love, personal commitment and intrinsic satisfaction are now seen as the cornerstones of marriage. The absence of these feelings is itself justification for ending the relationship.’
    • Functionalists take an optimistic view
      • Point to the continuing popularity of marriage
      • It has not been rejected as an institution
      • Too ‘rosy’ a view?
    • Feminists
      • The oppression of women in marriage is the main factor
      • Functionalists fail to explain why it is mainly women rather than men that seek divorce.
  • 23.
    • Improvements in economic position
      • Women today much more likely to be in paid work
        • 47% in 1959
        • 70% in 2005
      • Equal pay act & anti-discrimination law
      • Girls’ greater success in education
      • Availability of welfare benefits – women no longer have to be financially dependent on men
  • 24.
    • Arlie Hochschild (1997) argues that for many women, the home compares unfavourably with work
      • At work the woman feels valued
      • Men’s resistance to housework at home makes marriage less stable
      • Both going to work leaves less time and energy to talk about issues together
  • 25.
    • Wendy Sigle-Rushton (2007)
      • Working mothers more likely to divorce than traditional bread winning families
      • However, where the husband is involved with chores, the likelyhood of divorce falls to the same levels as traditional bread winning families
    • Jessie Bernard (1976)
      • Many women feel a growing dissatisfaction with patriarchal marriage
      • Rising divorce rate + most petitions coming from women = feminist ideas – more confident about rejecting patriarchal oppression
  • 26.
    • Make notes from the yellow book (Haralambos) page 64.
      • The consequences of divorce
        • Divorce and children
        • Divorce and society
  • 27.
    • Which religions now allow divorce and re-marriage and under which circumstances?
    • Try to find out about a range of churches
      • Church of England
      • Catholic
      • Baptist
      • Jehovas Witnesses
      • Pentecostalism
      • Non-Christian religions
    • Create a poster in publisher that can then be saved and put on the VLE