The impact of paid work Positive impact Negative impact Today, more than ¾ of married or co-habiting women are in some kind of paid employment in the UK, compared to less than half in 1971.
The impact of paid work Man-Yee Kan (2001): Income, age and education can have a positive or negative correlation with the amount of housework women do. For every £10,000 increase in salary, there is a two-hour reduction in housework. Gershuny (1994): wives who work do less housework. No work 83% of housework Part-time 82% of housework Full-time 73% of housework Longer in paid work = more help from husband.
The impact of paid work Gershuny (1994): Argues that there has been a gradual increase in equality between the sexes due to a shift in norms and values around paid work. It is seen as the norm for wives and mothers to work. Crompton (1997): agrees with Sullivan (1975, 1987, 1997): Gershuny, though thinks the trend towards equality in the trend towards equality is home. Men are taking on linked to earning power more traditionally female (MONEY!) rather than tasks (similar to the changing norms and values. ‘symmetrical family’ theory).
The impact of paid work Crompton (1997): suggests that until we have truly equal pay between the sexes, then the division of labour in the home will remain unequal. Men working full-time £27,300 Women working full-time £20,592 Difference per year £6,708 Difference per month £559 Difference in monthly take-home pay £374.53 Difference over a lifetime £250,000
The commercialisation of housework Silver (1987) and Schor (1993): good and services, such as domestic appliances and cleaners are used to reduce housework. With women work as well as men, households are more able to afford these. Have a look at the tasks at the bottom of p. 22 in Trobe.
The dual burden Feri and Smith (1996): Survey sample of 1,589 33 year-old fathers and mothers. Fathers took main responsibility for childcare in fewer than 4% of families.
The dual burden Arber and Ginn (1995): full daychildcare is essentialfor many women tostay in employment. Ramos (2003): contradicts Morris, suggesting that in households with an Morris (1990): even when unemployed male and female fathers are unemployed, they in full-time employment do avoid the housework. R W the same amount of Connell calls this the ‘crisis of housework (19 hours per masculinity’. week).
The triple burden? Hochschild (1983): suggests an even bleaker picture for mothers: paid work, followed by domestic work and supporting the family emotionally (e.g. caring for a sick child). Marsden (1995) calls this a ‘triple shift’.
In what types of family might we find a more equal division of labour? Homosexual cohabiting familiesDunne studied 37 cohabiting lesbiancouples with dependent children. Dunne (1999): thinks thatFound they were more likely than inequality in the division ofheterosexual couples to: labour arises because of deeply ingrained ‘gender•Share childcare and housework scripts’ (essentially norms andequally. values about who does what•Ascribe equal importance to their in the home and gendercareers. roles).•view childcare positively.