Marriage Is defined in two ways:First marriage: a marriage in which neither partnerhas been married beforeRe-marriage: a marriage in which one or bothpartners have been married before.Marriage: the formal union of a man and women, recognized by the law by which they becomehusband and wife.
Reasons for cohabitating Changing attitudes: as society has become more multi cultural , it has also become more opinionated therefore people are more willing to share their own ideologies and others also share the same views sometimes. Effective contraception: before contraception used to be unavailable , but now it is available all over. You can get hold of it easier because the NHS takes care of people’s sexual health and medication is usually free. There are also different types so people have more of a choice and can choose the ones they are comfortable with.
Changes in parental control , education and housing: the way children are brought up has rapidly changed over time , now children are brought up many different ways depending on the parent and how they choose to raise them.Due to the expansion of higher education it meansthat a large number of young people are leavinghome for reasons other than marriage. This results inthem being able to make their own choices andlive a lifestyle of their choice. This could lead tocohabitation.
What is divorce ? Divorce is the legal termination of marriage.
Changing patterns in divorce In the 19th century divorce was not easy to get. Gradually since then , there has been changes in the legal system. this is due to women having more rights. Divorce now is legal and women are entitled as much as men to have one.There are 3 types of changes in the law: Equalising the grounds , legal reasons for divorce between the two sexes Widening the ground for divorce Making divorce cheaper
Changes in the position ofwomen One reason for womens increased willingness to seek divorce is that improvements in their economic position have made them less financially dependent on their husband and therefore freer to end an unsatisfactory marriage. Women today are more likely to be in paid work. Although women earn less than men , equal pay and anti discrimination laws have helped to narrow the pay gap. The availability of welfare benefits means that women no longer have to remain financially dependent on their husbands. These developments mean that women are more likely to be able to support themselves in the event of divorce.
Other solutions to divorce Getting a divorce can cause issues to arise which can then result in long term consequences for example: a couple who have children go through court procedures as to why they should be allowed a divorce. They have two children. The decision of who gets full time care of the children is discussed and the father gets full custody. Situations such as this can happen. Another solution is desertion, which is when one partner leaves the other but the couple still remain by law married. Legal separation is when a court separates the financial and legal affairs of the couple , but they still remain married. The catch is they are not able to re - marry.
Empty shell is when the couple continue to live under the same roof but again , they are married only by name. Because divorce is more available today , the above solutions are rarely chosen.
Reasons for divorce Singlehood: some people choose to live on their own and prefer to. They make the choice to focus on their career or feel that marriage is to much of a commitment. Some also fail to find a suitable partner.in the past being single was seen as a negativestatus but now society shares different views. Thesinglehood can be seen as a positive thingbecause it means stress of relationships or issues ofmarriage do not occur.
Cohabitation: is when you are living with a partner but you are not married. It involves sharing a household. From 1976 – 1998 more women under 50 were cohabitating. Studies have shown that couples tend to be younger and 40% of non married women aged 25 – 29 chose to cohabitate. In society today cohabitation is no longer frowned upon , in fact it has become the norm for many couples. Some couples see it as a temporary status and tend to get married , while others feel comfortable remaining as not married. Some are engaged and see it as a test run before marriage.
The rise in divorce The divorce rate has increased a lot over the course of 50 years , statistics show that couples who have been divorced before are more likely to cohabit. The rise in divorce means that the view of marriage as a union which is seen as a scared union has now become mean less. People see cohabiting as an alternative to marriage without having the legal commitment or binds. In the western societys such as the uk there is more of an increase in divorce.
Family diversity Definition: Is a range of different family types that live in society for example: lone parent families or afro – Caribbean families. There is more than one type of diversity and you will find this out on the next couple of slides.
Cultural diversity Definition: cultural diversity refers to differences in family lifestyles between ethnic and religious groups. Ballard (1982) found that extended family relationships were more common in minority groups originating in south Asia from Pakistan , Bangladesh and India. Majority of Pakistani and Bangladeshi women said their duties required looking after the household and family. The traditional ‘cereal packet family’ is most commonly found in these regions therefore divorce is not common because of the strong social disapproval and stress within the community.
African – Caribbean families are often centred around the mother , who is mainly the breadwinner among the family. Lone parent families are more common than any other ethnic group , over half of afro – Caribbean families with children are lone parents and there are also low marriage rates. This reflects a cultural tradition and a high rate of male unemployment.
Class diversity Definition: class diversity refers to differences between middle class and working class families. For example, extended families are still found in traditional working class communities and the nuclear family may be more common in middle class families. Differences in income will also lead to differences in lifestyle.
Life cycle diversity Definition: refers to the way families may change through life. For example: partners have children and the children grow older and prepare to leave home. Partners separate and form new relationships. All of these factors mean that the family will be constantly changing. E.g. levels of family income will change as children move from dependence to independence. This means that there will always be a diversity of family types at different stages of the family cycle.