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  1. 1. [A2 Sociology][Unit 4: Crime & Deviance with Theories & Methods][Year 13] Lesson Focus Learning Objectives Extended/Inde Assessment Focus Resources To Understand:- pendent & evidence Learning1. Introduction Sociological Objective: To explain the different ways http://www.y Explain what is Macro Use: Sociologists theorists sociological theories sociologists look at society. It is like walking into and Micro sociology: Textbook or internet to find outtheories a hall of mirrors, same object but with different atch? Relate: functional, the definition of terms images. v=mYBNRUStZ maxism and This will help them to evaluate the methodology sg&feature=pl interactionism. chosen by various sociologists in their theories. ayer_embedde • Macro sociology d  Structural: Consensus and Conflict perspectives (Durkheim, Parsons, Visual Marxism, feminists sociology: • Micro sociology: Macro and  Social interactionist/interpretist Micro  Symbolic interactionism perspective.  Phenomenology Relate to the Top down and  Ethenomethodogy bottom up  postmodernist approach1. Introduction Lesson One May be a good idea to start introducing different Powerpointto the concept double: sociology theories first (structuralist , - Simple view of causes of crime,of crime & Different definition interactionist, conflict theory) - Social construction of crime anddeviance (C&D) of crime & deviance – QEHS. deviance, social What is deviance is not criminal, there is legal, - What is deviance & order and social time, culture and place dimension. C&D is a functionalism control social construct - Social construction of C&D Distinction ≠ - What is Crime? What is Deviance? - Simple view of causes of crime sociological - Can an act be criminal & deviant? Need to print some slides theories & social - When an act can be deviance but not Worksheet – How criminal are (e.g. biological, criminal? you. psychological) Handout with exercise –
  2. 2. “Introduction to deviance” Cesare Lombroso – Biological theories H J Eysenck – social Psychology – mental issue - Ask students to draw a picture Labelling theory – by Becker of a criminal and draw attention to their stereotype.2: Functionalist, Lesson: 3 double at Know & Understand the functionalist * Not sure the Exam Question: PPTsstrain & least perspective on crime, including the functions of following Examine the role of Textbook: Webb page 73 -78subcultural : Durkheims crime. articles are access to opportunitytheories. Functionalist • Need to understand the term: anomie available in the structures in causing Funtionalist Workbook Theory • Achieve social solidarity by socialisation & libraryr: Read crime & deviance. Lesson 2: Mertons social control one article Worksheets strain theory • + function of crime: boundary from Online Past exam paper for Lesson 3: maintenance and adaptation and change. Journal: essay on Merton v=v48kAslT-cY Subcultural strain Students can research this Introduction to Functionalism theory •Durkheim – Positive aspects of crime Sociology January 2011 Lesson 4: Recent •1) Reaffirming boundaries – eg newspaper Review | Volu Assess the usefulness strain theories footage of punishments; public stoning etc me 8 | 4 April of subculture theories •2) Changing Values – Tony Martin, the farmer, 1999 in explaining Essay Plan Template shot and killed a 16yr old boy who was stealing ‘subculture crime and from his house. Media was interested as many deviance in society Subculture theory workbook said it showed the British justice system supports In focus: the today. (21 marks) criminals more than victims. 1998 British •3) Social Cohesion – 9/11, London Bombings etc Crime Survey June 05 v=fvVd9oOxTm8&feature=related – community draws together at times of hardship (b) Using mat. A & •Negative aspects of crime Recent Strain elsewhere, examine Merton’s Strain theory – very well Anomie – Looting during storms in Chicago theory some of the ways in explained. which functionalists Extension exercise on page 10 of Know & Understand the concept of strain theory Messner and have tried to explain the Subculture workbook Rosenfeld and different types of and & its role in explaining deviance. the other ltwo patterns of crime and C&D workbook – Objective 4 Sub-culture theory studies by deviances. (12) Functionalism & Merton Downes and • Merton – Goals & means and 5 types of Hanson and Objective 6- Subculture theory response: Conformer, innovators, Savalsberg and activity. ritualists, retreatist, and rebels. June 2004 Using material from Draw a table with various Be able to explain the differences between Item A and theories, details, methods, S&W different strain & subcultural theories. elsewhere, examine • Cohen – status frustration some of the reasons
  3. 3. • Cloward & Ohlin: Criminal subculture, put forward by ?v=HRcOvOYkS- conflict subculture and retreatist sociologists for the k&feature=relmfu subculture formation of deviant Professor Robert Worley on • Matza – evaluate both Cohen & Cloward subcultures. Strain theory and anomie – for • Miller teachers information. Be able to evaluate functionalist, strain & subcultural theories of crime & deviance.2: Labelling Lesson 1: The social Know & Understand why labelling theories Not sure the Exam Question: Prior to teaching: would beTheory construction of regard crime & deviance as socially constructed. following Assess the view that useful to show some crime crime Know & Understand the labelling process & its articles are crime & deviance are statistics particularly on youth consequences for those who are labelled. available in the the product of labelling crime and also the process of Lesson 2: Who gets Webb: p 81 libarayr: processes. criminal justice system. labelled? • Howard Becker p81; explain his theory of ‘deviance is in the eye of the beholder’ Read this Jan 2012 PPTs Note: Labelling He invented the labelling theory & SFP, article from Using material from theory is also master label. the Online Item A and elsewhere, Webb: page 81 to 85 known as social • Interactions with social control agencies Journal: assess the usefulness Nelson Thornes: p254-257 action theory such as police & courts of labelling theory in Worksheets • Appearance, background & personal Sociology explaining crime and biography Review | Volu deviance. (21) Card sorts • Situation & circumstances of the offence me 14 | 4 April o Cicourel – police officer’s & court 2005 June 04: Using material Essay Plan Template typifications A & elsewhere, o Methods: Cicourel used both participant examine the Interactionist Crime and theory & non participants observational page 82 Corporate sociological reasons for Workbook – the page of crime the formation of evaluation is particularly Be able to evaluate the strengths & limitations deviant subculture demanding! of labelling theory in explaining crime & deviance. Jan 2008 C&D Workbook – objective 5 – Assess the view that labelling. • Edwin Lemert - Primary deviance to delinquent subculture Secondary deviance, (the process are the main cause of involves: master status→ a crisis of self- crime. Check list questions Webb page concept or sense of identity →self 85 fulfilling prophecy)
  4. 4. • Secondary deviance→more deviancy and Jan 2011 3: The a deviant career by e.g. join a deviant Using material from ?v=r-UBjL1zlgMeffects of labelling subculture that offers criminal career Item A and elsewhere, Summary of interactionism and opportunity. assess the usefulness labelling theory – Good one. • Jock Young – hippy culture of subcultural theories • Both their work highlight crime as a in explaining Activity: result of hostile societal reaction and a ‘subcultural crime and Master status; Ask students reaction of social control, hence it’s a deviance’ in society •Tell me something about: social construct. today. •Ian Huntley Note: the material A •Fred West contains info about •Amy Winehouse Key term: deviance amplification and Marxism. May be a •Pete Doherty amplification spiral. good essay to •Can you think of a better • Stanley Cohen: folk devils & Moral consolidate theories example?? Panics – societal reaction to mods and rockers at Claction (1964) Jan 2012 • Lin this with the role of media and wider Using material from ?v=6E66iDghFkg&feature=relatedLesson 4: Deviance context: police and state. Item A and elsewhere, Social action theory –amplification • Jock Young: Policing in crisis assess the usefulness interactionism of labelling theory in • Lemert: social control leads to deviance. explaining crime and Webb page 83 deviance. (21) ? v=A8yzVxBFNJE&feature=related Interestingly Lemert (1952) : He was the firstLabelling & Labelling theory of Crime - for one to argue that the societal reaction andCriminal Justice teacher to develop a deeper control process which the social control agenciesSystem understanding. Professor Robert put on the person who committed the offence M Worley deconstruct labelling and by labelling that person could actually lead theory of crime to primary, secondary and finally ‘the Master Status’ which is a form of SFP. Mods and Rocker – a youtube The Labelling theory was very popular from theEvaluation of clip in the shared area. 60s as there was public questioning over thelabelling theory power of the government and the states. The was the Vietnam War, the Civil Rights Movement, the assignation of John F. Kennedy, the Watergate. The CND protest. Crtics: criminolgists argued that the labelling ignored the crimogenic nature of crime, family upbringing
  5. 5. Nelson Thornes – p255 Braithwaite – labelling, shaming and disintegrative shaming made offenders feel excluded, not worthy to return to society and they will rejoin a criminal subculture. New strategy: community support, opportunity to repent and be reintegrated into society. This is very successful in Japan. In social policy pioneered in US, ‘restorative justice’ – offenders apologise to victim, etc The impact of CJS relabelled certain crime on certain groups of people (young people). This also impact on policing who claim negative labelling pushes offenders towards a deviant career. Hence some arguments for decriminalising soft drugs.3: Marxist Lesson 1 & 2: Know & understand why Marxists see crime as Not sure the Exam Question: PPTsTheorists Traditional inevitable in a capitalist society following Examine some of the Marxism • Because capitalism is criminogenic – by articles are ways in which Marxists Webb: page 87-91 its very nature it causes crime. available in the explain crime. • The state & the law – William Chambliss libarayr: Worksheets argues that laws to protect private Or property. Law is to protect the ruling Complete the Card sorts class’ interest. Snider: capitalist state is activity from Assess the usefulness reluctant to pass laws that regulate the the Online of Marxism to an Essay Plan Template activities of businesses or threatened Journal: understanding of crime their profitability. Selective Enforcement. (essay plan, etc is on • Ideological functions of crime & law: even Sociology the revision folder of Marxist theory of Crime and though some laws benefit the working Review | Volu C&D) Deviance Workbook (use the one class (Carson) but they benefit the ruling me 18 | 4 April with the Coca-cola image on the class too. Encourage the w/c to shift the 2009 June 2011 front page) blame of crime to the criminals rather Using material from than to blame the ruling class and Item A and elsewhere, Supplement workbook with capitalism. Crime and assess different Marxist notes on page 89. deviance views of the
  6. 6. Lesson 3: Neo- Know & Understand traditional & neo-Marxist crossword relationship between Marxism or critical approaches to crime & deviance, and the crime and social class. ?v=GJie- criminology similarities & differences between them. (21 marks) evvR3s&feature=player_embedd • Taylor et el dismissed Marxism as too ed deterministic Traditional Marxism • Taylor et al – take a more volunaristic view ( we have free will. Crime as meaningful action & a conscious choice. ? It has a political motive, like v=0_AdmLg5H_Y&feature=player redistribution of wealth. _embedded Neo-Marxism (critical Marxism) • He emphasis freedom of individual liberty & diversity. ? • Against individual being labelled deviant v=Lb42CkSK9tk&feature=BFa&lis t=PL1519DC8363990570 Be able to evaluate the strengths & limitations of summary of Marxism & radical Marxists & neo-Marxist approaches to crime & criminology deviance. ? Lesson 4: A fully A comprehensive understanding of crime & v=XCPhypQJZ0c&feature=relmfu social theory of deviance to help change society for the better. For teacher – Professor Worley deviance This theory derives from both traditional Marxist, explain what is critical ideas from interactionism & labelling theory. criminology Evaluation of critical criminology Summary4: Left & Right Lesson 1 & 2: Right Know & Understand the difference between Produce a Essay: on page 99 PPTsrealists realism realist & other approaches to crime. summary Exam Question: Webb: page 92-99 Lesson 3 &4: Left Causes of Crime video or poser Assess the value of the realism Right: Biological: Wilson & Herrnstein; about one of right realist approach Worksheets socialisation and the underclass: Charles Murray; these 4 topics. to crime & deviance. Vote Britainia debate: Please remind Rational Choice Theory: Ron Clarke and Marcus Group 1: Split students into 2 groups: one students that this Felson’ s Routine Activity Theory Functionalist, June 2009 represent left and the other right links closely with strain & Assess the usefulness realists and come up with a Social Control, Left: Crime is a real problem and how they subcultural of realist theories for political speech about what they agencies of social criticised traditional Marxist, neo-marxtis and theories. our understanding of would do to tackle crime. control later on. labelling theorists. Group 2: crime This area will be Relative Deprivation: Lea & Young; Subculture: Labelling Card sorts
  7. 7. revisited. Cohen, Cloward & Ohlin; Marginlisation. Theory Societial change: late modernity, exclusion: since Group3: 70s, more exclusion, isolation. Link this with Marxist ? Merton’s strain theory – wide spread resentment Theorists v=r85FMhHWtNk&feature=relate at the undeservedly high rewards like footballer; Group 4: Left & d Reaction to crime by the society and the state Right realists Youtube – put this in the shared also changed. area, students watch this & should help them to consolidate Know the main features of right & left realist understanding & draw a table approaches to crime. with the heading: causes of Tackling Crime crime, tackling crime, evaluation Right: Wilson & Kelling: Broken Windows, zero of each and both reaslism and tolerance, crime prevention police to reduce their common ground. reward & increase costs of crime, harder prison sentencing. Left: Policing focus on working with the england-london-16572689 community, multi-agency approach (local Met Police changing London gang councils, social services, housing dept., schools) crime tactics – Trident – Left Structural: causes of crime: reduce inequality. realists Understand their political context & the similarities & differences between them. http://www.sociologyexchange.c Left realism have more influence, particularly with the New Labour government policies (tough Jim Riley created this video file to on crime and causes of crime): ASBO, sexual explain what is right realism assault & domestic violence, New Deal to tackle causes of crime, anti-truanting policies http://www.sociologyexchange.c Jim Riley’s VLE video file on Left Be able to evaluate the strengths & limitations of Realism and is saved in my area: right & left realist approaches to crime. staffewj at school. Good one. Students can make notes from it.Social class & June 2008crime(Not in the Assess sociologicalWebb explanations of socialtextbook) class differences in crime rates (Item A).
  8. 8. Age and crime Link this with pattern of crime and youth crime, Social distribution of crime – Age(not in the subculture theory, neo-maxism theory, edgework Workbook, includes a planningWebb (Lyng) exercise for an essaytextbook) Edgework – marking exercise5: Gender & Lesson 1: Gender Knew the main gender differences in recorded Read this Exam Question: PPTsCrime patterns in crime patterns of offending. article from Assess the value of the Lesson 2: -use crime statistics to show the pattern and the Online ‘chivalry thesis’ in Webb: page 100-108Link this with Explaining female discuss reasons. Journal: understanding gendersocial crime - query the problems of crime statistics: are all differences in crime. C&D Workbook – Objective 8 –distribution of Lesson 3: Women crimes recorded? why some crimes committed Sociology Gender & Crimecrime. & the CJS: the by females are not recorded Review | Volu June 2010 chivalry thesis. me 19 | 3 Examine some of the Worksheets Lesson 4: Why do Understand & Be able to evaluate the debates February 2010 reasons why females - Gender & Crime statistics men commit about the treatment of men & women in the may be less likely than worksheet and there’s a crime? criminal justice system. male to comit crimes power point to go with - the Chivalry thesis: For (Pollak 1950). In focus: (12) this. Againast: Farrington & Morris, Box Gender and - Mix & match game - Bias against women: Feminists: crime June 2007 - Mind map, diagram and Heidensohn, Pat Carlen. Fminists argued Using material from theory on gender that CJS is double-standard & patriarchal, Item A and worksheet, enlarge to A3 Walkate as well as Adler: rape cases, if elsewhere, assess women lack respectability, they’re not sociological file:///Volumes/NO believed. %20NAME/Ellen/Sociology%20- explanations of %20EJ/Crime%20and gender Be able to evaluate explanations of the %20deviance/Revision,%20past relationship between women & crime, & differences in %20paper,%20guide,%20etc/You between men & crime. patterns of %20tube%20revision Reasons why women commit crime: Functionalist offending, %20/A2%20Sociology%20Crime sex role theory; Heidensohn: patriarchal control. victimisation and %20and%20Deviance%20Quiz Control at home: Dobash & Dobash (violent punishment. %20Gender%20- husband) Link this with methods: interviews on %20YouTube.html page 104. Bedroom culture. Control in public You tube revision quiz on gender and control at work. Carlen: class & gender deals Jan 2005 Liberation Thesis: Adler Assess sociological ammes/newsnight/9648013.stm explanations of Masculinity & crime: Video: examining the truth about gender differences in Messercchmidt: hegemonic masculinity, girl gangs –good one. rates of crime and
  9. 9. subordinated masculinities. Also link with class deviance.youth and ethnic differences to rule breaking. 01826.stm Winlow: Study of bouncers(bouncers), Bodily BBC news – crime by girls rise bcapital: - the ability to use violence, looking the the quarterpart using the body.The Night-time economyHobbs (2000) – growth in leisure economy & Brainstorm:large no. of young male in public ‘in a narrow Connell/messerchmidt &time band’ normative masculinity.Taylor (1999)– nocturnal economy is linked to •Why has there been a spate ofglobalisaton – traditional industry decline and gang stabbings in the last fewgrowth in leisure economy) yrs? Is this an attempt to achieve normative masculinity in a gang?Look at synoptic links: at bottom of page 107 Its not natural or easy. •Could there be other ways ofPs: don’t forget: the pleasure of committing C&D, achieving it? Ie Maleedgework. There is power point called: Male businessmen exerting theircrime with Critique – very useful (Katz, Lyng, control in the office; Domestic violence over women? •Are boys in gangs because they are in a state of drift and they join gangs to give them identity Nocturnal Economy: Brainstorm. •The lads that hang out by my local shops. • Licensing hours –did it help or not? statistically before licensing laws ¾ of violent crime in urban areas occurs between 9pm-3am. Why is it all happening Lyng-Male risk taking Is it just men though? What about
  10. 10. Winona Ryder…and that other one6: Ethnicity & Lesson 1: Ethnicity Know the patterns of ethnicity & criminalisation Read this Exam Question: Webb: page 111-117Crime & criminalisation as shown by different sources of data. article from Examine some of the Lesson 2: Ethnicity • Official stats, victim surveys, self report the Online reasons for ethnic PPTs & the CJS studies (each with pros and cons) Journal: differences in Lesson 3: • Method link: questionnaires (self reports experiences of the Worksheets: Explaining the studies) Sociology criminal justice system 1. Mind Map: Ethnicty, differences in Review | Volu racism and CJS offending There are 2 main explanations: me 12 | 3 Jan 2010 Lesson 4: Ethnicity - Racism in the CJS February 2003 Using material from Essay plan Card sorts –group & victimisation - Structural sociological explanation Item A and activity elsewhere, assess the Essay Plan Template Understand the relationship between the In the news: view that ethnic criminal justice process & ethnicity race and Ethnicity Workbook differences in - Ethnic differences at each stage of the crime Ethnicity and crime revision mind crime rates are the CJS – use (Sample Exam paper question) map. In groups: result of the ways in - Stop & search: Philips & Bowling 2007 (Canteen Culture), Terrorist Act 2008 Collect crime which the criminal - Students: read p11- to 113 and complete stories from a justice system the mind map exercise. Also: low & range of local operates. Brainstorm high police discretion, demographic & national •Gang stabbings – If we look on factors. newspapers BBC website for news on recent - Arrest & cautions: and analysis stabbings, the majority are intra- - Prosecution: Bowling & Phillips (2002): the content to racial evidence used by the CPS is given by the see how far do police which is weaker and based on the media •Macpherson Inquiry – 1993 – stereotypes report details Stephen Lawrence’s murder – of ethnicity of some evidence of institutional victims and racism Be able to evaluate sociological explanations of offenders? the relationship between ethnicity, offending & How far do •Is it fair to blame ethnicity for criminalisation. they use ethnic high levels of Afro-Caribbean - Left Realism: Lea & Young – accepts stereotypes crime? What did Fitzgerald ethnic differences in statistics reflect real when discover about it? How can we differences in levels of offending by reporting link in theory & methods to his different groups and that the police often crime. Use discovery
  11. 11. acts in a racist way BUT argues main Crimewatch, causes are due to real difference in levels and tv news. of relative deprivation & marginalisation ? experienced by different ethnic groups. v=J_GWy82olhw&feature=autopl - Neo-Marxism: Social construction that ay&list=PLE98CEF4F301572E6&pl stereotypes ethnic as inherently more aynext=1 criminal. Paul Gilroy & Stuart Hall et al. Racism in UK Police Force – Paul Gilroy: the myth of black criminality. reflect institutional racism, Their crime is seen as a form of political canteen culture. Discuss resistance against a racist society and has methodology afterwards, covert its roots based against imperialism. participation, questionnaire, - Hall et al: policing the crisis: media interviews. driven moral panic of black muggers is a scapegoat to detract attention from the failure of capitalism, political anomie and dex.php/sociology/comments/cri unemployment. me-and-ethnicity/ An article on police attitude, Understand the relationship between ethnicity research done by Marion racism & victimisation. Fitzerald and Philips and Bowling - Extent & risk of victimisation: different stats for different ethnic groups. Race is not the only cause: age, gender, being unemployed. Sample & Phillips (92) – racist victimisation tends to be ongoing, with repeated ‘minor’ incidents interwoven with periodic physical violence. - Responses to victimisation - Methods link: BCS (using structure interviews) page 1167: Crime & the Lesson 1: Media Know the patterns of media representations of Read this Exam Question: Webb: page 119 - 123Media representations of crime & how these differ from the picture of article from Examine the ways in crime crime in official statistics. the Online which the media PPTs Lesson 2: The • Examine what kinds of news are over- Journal: stimulate moral panics media as a cause of represented: violent, sex crime, murder, & create folk devils. Crime & media handouts crime sensational, ignore property & burglary. Sociology
  12. 12. Lesson 3: Moral Don’t explain causes of crime. Review | Volupanics • Distorted picture of crime reflect that me 19 | 4 April WorksheetsLesson 4: Global crime is a social construct: some stories 2010 • Media representation ofcyber-crime are selected whilst others rejected. crime Journalists decide what is ‘news values’: • Folk devil, moral panic immediacy, dramatisation, Young people. and laws personalisation, higher-status, risk and simplification, novelty or cybercrime Card sorts unexpectedness risk and violence • Fictional representations of crime: tv, Essay Plan Template cinema, novels. Surette (98) calls ‘the law of opposites’: they are the opposite v=XfSlsa-kJhg of the official statistics – similar to news coverage. Summary of media representation of crime Understand & be able to evaluate different views about the media as a cause of crime & fear of crime. NR=1&v=r61ks18Bd7IMods and • How media cause C&D: imitation, rockers moral panic arousal, desensitisation, transmitting crime knowledge, portray police as incompetent, glamorise crime hi/dates/stories/april/4/newsid_2 • Methods link: Bandua ‘s doll page 120 521000/2521067.stm Oakney – but Schramm el al see no strong link. child abuse? • Fear of crime; Schlesinger and Tumber found a correlation • Media: focus on material, good life of v=qO52SMQB7tE&feature=player leisure, fun and consumer goods: Could lead to a sense of relative deprivation, _embedded Moral Panic – social exclusion and cause crime, similar Charlie Brooker’s Newswipe – to Merton. News Coverage of ‘Frozen Britain’ Snowing is just natural and how Know & be able to evaluate views of the media’s the news make a meal out of it. role in the creation of moral panics. Lack grit, people falling over, • Moral entrepreneur who disapprove of schools closed, gas demand up, certain behaviour could use the media to put pressure on authorities/police to do how the whole country can’t something. A moral panic is an cope!
  13. 13. exaggerated over-reaction by society to a perceived problem – usually driven or NR=1&v=SrOQdau2CWA inspired by the media. • Stanley Cohen’s: Folk devils & Moral What is moral panic – deviance Panics: Mods & Rockers. Media: acts and technology and exaggerate and distort the event, made legislation is not keeping up prediction of further conflict, todate. symbolisation by clothes, hairstyles, music, • Wider Context: Stanley Cohen: Moral .uk/videos/view/20378/ panic happened because of ‘boundary crisis’ and times of social changes. How media creates a materialistic Functionalist: a response to anomie or society. Use this to discuss normlessness caused by change. Neo- sociological explanation of crime. Marxist: Stuart Hall et al (79): in the context of capitalism, distract the w/c on racial ground & to accept more authoritarian style of rule. • Methods link: page 123: Cohen used a .uk/videos/view/20377/ mixed methods: documentary, observations, interviews. Moral panic, Marilyn Manson in Bowling for ColumbineUnderstand the relationships between the newinformation media & crime & social control. • Global cyber-crime: Yvonne Jewkes (03): .uk/videos/view/20380/ internet creates opportunities to commit crimes, e.g. fraud. Wall (01) identifies 4 Media panic – how bad weather categories: cyber trespass, cyber- report is whipped into a frenzy, a deception & theft, cyber-pornography, cyber violence. funny way to look at media panci
  14. 14. 8: Lesson 1 & 2: Know & Understand the ways in which Produce a Exam Question: Webb: page 127 -135Globalisation, Crime & globalisation & crime are related. poster about Examine theGreen & State Globalisation Be able to evaluate explanations for this one of these 4 relationship between PPTsCrime Lesson 3: Green relationship. topics. crimes against the • Visual images of state Crime Group 1: environment & the crime Lesson 4: State The Global criminal economy Gender & process of crimes • TNC (Transnational Organised Crime) crime globalisation. BBC news - lots of reports on Group 2: international crime. • Manuel Castells (98) – Arms trafficking, Ethnicity & Jan 2010 Controversial reports on India and trafficking in nuclear materials, smuggling Crime Examine some of the China illegal human organ of illegal immigrants, women and Group3: Crime ways in which crime transplant. children, body parts, cyber crimes, green & the Media and globalisation crimes, international terrorism, smuggling Group 4: may be related. (12 – of legal goods, cultural artefacts, Globalisation, investigating global crime endangered species, drugs, money marks) Green & State laundering. Crime Worksheets • Why? The same old philosophy of Jan 2012 Using material from Globalisation of C&D by Jo. Swaile economics: D and S. Who are the players in this game? Rich countries’ demand for Item B and elsewhere, assess the view that Card sorts goods & services and the impact on poor countries. the process of globalisation has led to Essay Plan Template Global risk consciousness changes in both the amount of crime and Mafia of the day: put students • Economic migrants, asylum seekers has the types of crime into groups and they can be think given rise to anxieties amongst the committed. of as many global as possible. Western countries about the risks of (21 marks) Homework: get news articles and crime and disorders update the news board. Can even • Media exaggeration bring in an element of • Implication;: intensification of social competition here – who’s the big control at national level. More CCTV, daddy mafia? airline fines, border control, etc, Debate: China/India: do they Globalisation, capitalism and crime contribute the most pollutions? • Ian Taylor (1997) : a socialist argues
  15. 15. market forces means exploitation, Put into two groups: one to speak greater inequality and rising crime at from China/India’s perspective both ends of the social spectrum. and the other group: the • TNC: switch production to low wage developed countries or the 1st countries create insecurity In other countries. countries. • Deregulation: government have little http://www.sociologyexchange.c control over their own economy. For elite group, insider trading, movement of Globalisation: green crime, state funds for tax evasion. EU: offer crime, criminal economy opportunities for fraudulent claims for subsidies, the EU gravy trains. Note: their http://www.sociologyexchange.c accounts have not been signed by auditors due to irregularities and the TED- Organised crime – McMafia whistle blowers were punished. – very useful globalised crime – • Marketisation: encourage individual to show students this emphasis consumption and undermine social cohesion as supported by Left Realists. • Link this to impact on the poor’s lack of legitimate job opportunities to crime • Globalisation: impact on jobs: subcontracting to recruit flexible workers who could be illegal or paid less than the minimum wage, h&S, labour laws.Patterns of criminal organisation‘Glocal’ Organisation: have international links,normally with drugs, but they also operate in alocal context. Individuals with local contacts andnetworks. Hobbs and Dunningham: crime worksas ‘glocal’ systems: still locally based, but withglobal connections. They’re less hierarchicalmore flexible like cellsMcMafia – Misha Glenny – link TRC with breakup of Soviet Union after 1989 which coincided
  16. 16. with deregulation of global markets. Note: howLondon’s hot properties are now bought byRussians and how they transferred capital.Parallel comparison is with China’s organisedcrime and how some politicians becomemillionaires.Know & Understand the different types ofgreen crimeBe able to evaluate sociological explanationsof environmental harm. • Examine the impact of the actions of corporations and nations on the eco systems. • Green criminology • Two views of harm: anthropocentric and ecocentric view • Nigel South classifies 2 types of green crime: primary & secondary • Evaluation: different countries have different laws and definition. According to Marxist, the capitalist class shape and define crime. Also, the nations states and transnational corporations’ interests are interwined. Critics argued moral or political boundaries often involve value judgement which cannot be defined objectively.Know & Understand the relationship betweenstate crimes & human rights.Be able to evaluate evaluations of such crimes. • Eugene McLaughlin (2001): political crimes, crimes by police & security, economic crime, cultural & social crime • Human rights & state crime: involve natural rights and civil rights.
  17. 17. • Herman & Julia Schwendinger: crime in terms of violation of human rights • Note: different definition on what is human rights • State crime & culture of denial: Cohen’s spiral of denial and neutralisation theory • State crime & social condition: Kelman & Hamilton (89) work on crimes of obedience (My Lai in Vietnam) identify 3 features: Authorisation, routinisation and dehumanisation.Topic 9: Crime, Lesson 1 & 2: Know, Understand & be able to evaluate a range Read this Exam Question: Webb: page 137 - 143Punishment & Crime prevention & of crime prevention & control strategies. article from Assess sociologicalVictims control Situational Crime Prevention (right Realism the Online views of crime PPTs Lesson 3: approach – Rational choice theory) Journal: Don’t reduction strategies. Punishment • Ron Clarke (92) describe this as a ‘pre- think the Lesson 4: The emptive approach) – this provides a library got this. June 2005 Worksheets: social control victims of crime realistic solution as most crimes are “Deviance is the workbook opportunistic. This is supported by Sociology result of the social Marcus Felson’s work (98) on the New Review | Volu background of the Card sort York Bus Terminal. me 12 | 3 deviant, rather than • Criticism: Chalken el al (74): February 2003 Crime Reduction Strategies – of the actions of displacement of crime (spatial, temporal, Consolidation Activities – use the social control target, tactical , functional). Evaluation: textbook p.137-142 to fill in the Interview. agencies.” Assess this tables ignores white collar crime, assumes criminals make rational choices, ignores Cressida Dick: view. causes of crime. Crime and Devise an anti-burglary strategy policing Jan 2009 (Spec Environment Crime prevention paper) Essay Plan Template • James Wilson & George Kellings (82) Students use Examine the article on ‘Broken Windows’ and ‘tipping’ BBC or search effectiveness of Policing: the neighbourhood into no go area. other situational crime • Zero tolerance policing (Right Realism): newspaper for prevention as a england-london-16825265 use: 1sr environment strategy and then news on social Gang member face stark choice means of reducing zero tolerance policing by being control, find at gruesome day in court – to the impact proactively tackle even the slightest sign evidence on face reality of violent gang crime government of crime on society of disorder. policies and (Item A) Left realist – tough on sexual • Evaluation: New York is now safer but
  18. 18. read page 138 for criticism. different style crimeSocial & community crime prevention (left of policing and A good consolidation link findings to question which could england-london-16975835 - news • Informal control and community theory such as include all the above video clip prevention strategy place – more on left and right theories, including £1.5m funding for girl gang prevention and is long term, tackle root Realism. Use how official stats are member who are raped by male causes of offending. And recognise the blog. collected, role of gang members causes of crime are linked with social policing condition: poverty, unemployment, June 2006 housing. “Since the mid- england-london-16940160 • The Perry Pre-school Project for 1950s, the number of More than 200 held as Met Police disadvantaged black children in Michigan. recorded crimes in crack down on gangs- video clips Method: Longitudinal study: showed its Operation Trident England and Wales cost effective. has risen • Criticism: focus on fairly low level and/or from about half a interpersonal crimes of violence. But million a year to ignore the powerful and environmental ?v=HZ_km1R11Cw Situational crime. around 5 million crime control today.”Punishment Assess sociological, Understand & be able to evaluatedifferent perspectives on punishment. explanations of the ?v=KnL0iwT-1bE VictimologyKnow the main trends in sentencing & increase in recordedunderstand their significance. crime in the last 50 Note: Professor Lawrence • Functions of punishment: crime years. Sherman – Criminology reduction and retribution. Department of Cambridge • Reduction can be done through: June 06 University has done some deterrence (Conservative short sharp Using material from pioneering work on crime shock regime on young offenders). Item A and elsewhere, prevention. Latest work: on Rehabilitation and incapacitation examine the relationship between effectiveness of tagging criminal (imprisonment, execution, cutting off of hands) age and and to follow Hawaii method and • Retribution (paying back): an expressive patterns of crime. In will be conducting a pilot study. view (express society’s outrage. your answer, make reference to materialSociological perspectives on punishment from two or more of • Durkheim (functionalist): Retributive the justices and restitutive justice. following areas: Retributive: in traditional society, families and
  19. 19. punishment is severe and cruel, households; health; ? motivation is expressive. Restitutive: mass media; education; v=ZNW3zG3D55k&feature=gv&hl Modern society, there’s specialisation, wealth, poverty =en motivation is instrumental (to restore and welfare; work and We’are all criminals now – society’s equilibrium. But there is both leisure; power and Channel 4 – 30 min. This is a very elements in reality. politics; religion; world good video to illustrate Marxists• Marxists: capitalism and punishment. sociology. (12 marks) point of view. Ordinary people Function of punishment is to maintain are now being fined or punished existing social order. (E.P. Thompson Jan 2009 (Spec Paper) for something really trivial. Law 1977): 18th century ‘rule of terror’ by the Assess the usefulness enforcement applied to minor landed aristocracy over the poor. of conflict theories offenders. Too much power is Melossi and Pavarini (1981): for an understanding given to the local authority. Real imprisonment reflects capitalist relation of crime and criminals are not affected. Too of production by making prisoners ‘do many laws and legislation are deviance in time’ to pay back. Both the capitalist created. Too much surveillance? contemporary factory and prison have strict disciplinary society style, involving subordinates and loss of liberty. ?• Foucault (1977): 2 forms of punishment: v=mV4r7TnAPJo&feature=relmfu Sovereign power (before 19th century) Professor Robert Worley and Disciplinary power (from 19th explained Shaw & Makey and century). Punishment changed from Burgess’ theory of Concentric being physical and public to internalised Zones of crime and crime and intense. Achieved by having ‘experts’ mapping. For teachers whose job is to make sure that the person fully internalizes the need to conform. The punishment has shifted from the body to the mind and soul of the offender through self surveillance. He used panopticon (a prison design) to explain his point. Self discipline to induce conformity by institutions like schools, prison, factories, mental home, asylums, barracks. Criticism: Goffman (62): shows inmates are able to resist controls in institutions. Foucoult also neglects expressive (emotional) aspect of punishment.
  20. 20. Changing role of prisons • 2/3 of prisoners reoffend. • Since the 80s, a move to ‘populist punitiveness’ and prison population soared – mass incarceration. Another reason for this was to arrest people on drug related crime. • Transcarceration: individuals become locked into a cycle of control, shifting between different carceral agencies during their lives. Some sociologists see this as a product of blurring boundaries between CJS and welfare agencies which are given more crime control role. • Alternative to prison: Community based control: curfews, community service orders, treatment orders & electronic tagging. Stanley Cohen: the growth of community control simply cast the net of control over more people. Instead of prevention, police use ASBO to fast track young offenders to custodial sentences.Know the main patterns of victimisation & beable to evaluate sociological perspectives onvictimisation. • Nils Christie (86):’victim’ is socially constructed seen by the media, public and CJS as a weak, innocent & blameless individuals like a small child or an old woman
  21. 21. Topic 10: Lesson 1: Durkheim Know the main features of the main sociological Newspaper Exam Question: PPTsSuicide & Suicide explanations of suicide. research on Assess the usefulness There was a BBC programme Lesson 2: Later different types of different sociological about a London coroner’s work. Positivist Understand the similarities & differences of suicide and approaches to suicide. approaches between positivist, interactionist, classify them Worksheets Lesson 3: ethnomethodological & realist approaches to using June 2004 Interpretivism & suicide. sociological Assess the usefulness Card sorts suicide: Douglas & theories of quantitative and Atkinson Be able to evaluate the strengths & limitations of qualitative sources of Essay Plan Template Lesson 4: different sociological explanations of suicide. Produce a data in studying Interpretivism & summary suicide. (40 m suicide: Taylor about one of these 4 topics. Group 1: Crime prevention Group 2: Punishment Group3: Victims of Crime Group 4: SuicidePERVERT Lesson 1 -3: Recap Know & Understand the main characteristics of Complete Exam Question: PERVERT crime & deviance as a context for sociological these Assess the strengths & Lesson 4 & 5: research. questions weaknesses of using Researching crime from the experiments to & deviance Understand some of the problems & Online Journal: investigate power & opportunities that researching issues in crime & authority in prisons. deviance presents for sociologists. Sociology Or Review | Volu Assess the strengths & Be aware of some of the research strategies me 12 | 2 weaknesses of using sociologists use to investigate crime & deviance. November structured interviews 2002 to investigate the real rate of street crime A to Z of crime June 2010 and deviance: Assess the relative questions importance of the
  22. 22. different factors that affect sociologists’ choice of research methods and of topics to investigate. (33 marks)Methods in Lesson 1: Know the different areas of research related to Complete this Exam Question: }Context Experiments crime & deviance. activity from Assess the strengths & Lesson 2: the Online weaknesses of using 72/ta-crimologists-tales-and- Questionnaires Understand the research prompts that need to be Journal: questionnaires to erotic-capital/view.aspx? Lessons 3: considered when carrying out research in the investigate violent returnToUrl=http%3a%2f Interviews different areas of research for crime & deviance. Sociology crime. Lesson 4: Review | Volu Observations Be able to apply PERVERT for 5 methods to the me 20 | 2 Or %2fNavigation%2fChannels.aspx Lesson 5: different areas of research for crime & deviance. November Assess the strengths & %3fid%3d120%26pid Secondary data 2010 weaknesses of using %3d61171%26page%3d2 public & personal documents to Radio4: Thinking allowed: More past exam questions Question and investigate corporate Criminology Covert Observation. June 2010 answer (AQA): crime Good one. Using material from Item B and elsewhere, assess Methods in the strengths and limitations of context: Crime Jan 2007 Also: BBC2 programme on overt participant observation as a means of and deviance Assess the interviewing young gangster. investigating police attitudes. (15) usefulness of statistical data in the Jan 2011 study of crime and Using material from Item B and elsewhere, assess deviance. (40 marks) http://www.sociologyexchange.c the strengths and limitations of using written questionnaires as a means of Using material from investigating prisoners’ experience of Item B and elsewhere, Crime statistics – the dark figure. imprisonment. assess the strengths and limitations of June 2011 unstructured Identify and briefl y explain two problems of using experiments to investigate the interviews as a means relationship between the mass media and of investigating juvenile delinquency. (6 marks) victims of crime. (15 marks)
  23. 23. June 2011 Using material from Item B and elsewhere, assess the strengths and limitations of using unstructured interviews to investigate domestic violence. (15 marks Jan 2012 Using material from Item C and elsewhere, assess the strengths and limitations of using covert observation as a means of investigating court proceedings. (15 marks)Positivist Jan 2011 Assess the view that positivist methods are inappropriate for investigating society. (33 marks)Topic 1: Lesson 1: Society Know the main features of the functionalist view Sociology Exam Question:Functionalism as a system of the social system. Review | Volu Assess the strengths & Lesson 2: Merton’s me 20 | 3 weaknesses of the internal critique of Understand Merton’s contribution to the February 2011 functionalist approach functionalism development of functionalism. to society. Lesson 3: External The press critiques of Be able to evaluate the strengths & limitations of portrayal of Jan 2012 functionalism the functionalist perspective on society. crime Assess the contribution of functionalist and New Right theories and research to our understanding of society today.Topic 2: Lesson 1: Marx’s Know & understand Marx’s main ideas & Exam Question:Marxism Ideas concepts. Critically examine Sociology Lesson 2: Gramsci Marxist perspectives on