Declining Attraction Of Religion• Religious organisations are unattractive to young people.• Services = boring, repetitive, old-fashioned, elderly based, and out-of-touch with modern values.• Different views on abortion, contraception, women priests, gay rights, and sex before marriage.George Carey (1991)- “The Church of England is like an elderlylady who mutters away to herself in a corner, ignored most ofthe time.”
Expanding Spiritual Market• Lynch (2008)- Young people turn away from conventional ideas of religion.• Roof (2001)- ‘Expanded spiritual marketplace’. Growing exposure and accessibility to wide variety of religious and spiritual ideas; exploration. Beliefs can be built on and identities created to express themselves.
The Privatisation Of Belief• Young people treat religion as a private matter.• They may not feel like they belong to a particular religion, or hold any specific beliefs.• Prefer not to make a public display of their beliefs or admit them in surveys.Davie- ‘believing without belonging.’
Secular Spirituality & The Sacred• Lynch- although young people may be diverted from religion as normally conceived, they may be finding religious feelings inspired in them by aspects of what are generally regarded as non-religious or secular life.• Young people may not have lost all religiosity, but find new forms.
Declining Religious Education• Bruce- Church of England is unable to recruit young people by socialising them into religious thinking (e.g: Sunday schools or religious education.)• Sunday schools = in decline. In 2000, 1 in 25 children attended.• This will continue to decrease over time.
Pragmatic Reasons• Leisure = bigger part of life for young people, with shops, clubs, and pubs open for long hours (including on Sunday’s.)• Young people have more demands on their time – they have more enjoyable and interesting things to do.• Seen as ‘uncool’ to be religious (social pressure in peer groups.)
The Generational Effect• Each generation is becoming more secular than the previous one.• Young people are not socialised to be religious (born into secular society.)Voas and Crockett- “Each generation is half as religiousas their parents.” This is known as the ‘period effect’where people born in a particular time are more likelyto be religious than others.