Learning objectives• Evaluate sociological definitions of culture• Identify the difference between material culture and non-material culture
What are the essential ingredients of a society’s culture?• List the important elements of ‘Britishness’ – Material things (physical objects:cars, fashion, food) – Non-material things (knowledge, beliefs etc)• List the important elements of your culture• What are the similarities/differences?• What do all cultures have in common?
Sharing, teaching and learning• The things people value and the usual way they obey and express these values gives us the concept of a culture• Eg british culture: – A belief that we speak a common language – A belief in love and the right of the individual to choose their partner – A belief that murder is wrong and people who murder should be punished
Material and Non-material distinction• When is a house not a house? •Physical artefacts have cultural meanings, a house is not simply somewhere to live (manifest function) •Houses have cultural meanings –It means different things to different people which may or may not be obvious (latent function) Answer: When it’s a home
Kidd (2002) Abbott (1998)The features of culture Language is the most obvious(language, symbols, history, set of symbols through whichnorms and values) influence the members of society shareway members of society live meaningstheir livesMarshall (1998) Giddens (1997)Culture is all that in human No cultures could exists withoutsociety which is socially rather societies. But equally nothan biologically transmitted societies could exist without culture, no one could human at all
Dahl (2001)A collectively held set of Societies develop mechanismsattributes which is dynamic and for the transmission of culturalchanging over time signs, symbols and meanings from one generation to the nextMazrui (1996) Jencks (1993)There are seven functions of culture: There are four ways to describeCommunication culture:Perception 1. A state of mind – a ‘quality’ possessed by individualsIdentity 2. Civilization – some cultures areValue systems seen as more civilized than othersMotivation 3. ‘Collective body of arts andStratification intellectual work within any society’
Look at the images how many can you recognise the 5 types of culture • Subculture • High culture • Popular culture • Consumer culture • Global culture•Identify at least 4 characteristics of each type of culture•Comment on how each type of culture has developed as a responseto the way society is structured•Create a revision card for each type
TYPE OF CULTURE:DESCRIPTIONCHARACTERISTICSExamples
Subculture• A subculture is a culture enjoyed by a small group within a society.• In this sense it is a minority part of a majority culture.• Subcultures have distinct norms and values which make them a subsection of society – Eg youth groups such as emos, goths, religious groups such as scientologists• Memberships of subcultures changes over time as do the types of subculture within society. In this sense, subcultures can be seen to reflect the changing nature of society.
High Culture• High culture is linked with the elite, upper class in society, those families and individuals with an ascribed status position• They operate a system of social closure – not allowing entry to outsiders• It is associated with the arts such as opera, ballet and classical music, sports such as polo and Lacrosse
Popular culture• Activities enjoyed and accessed by the masses.• Media are largely responsible for creating popular culture in the contemporary UK .• What people buy and use plays a key role in popular culture.• It could be argued that popular culture at times borrows an idea from high culture and popularises it making it available to the masses. – Eg Golf, Vanessa Mae , Burberry
Consumer culture• Things we consume and use in society.• Based on cultural and economic factors• Reflects most of western world.• Shopping is a leisure pursuit• Culturally the society portrays a sense of its identity through the consumer goods available.• If the society has a bad economy then a consumer culture is difficult• But being in debt is the norm• Packaging and promotion is big business!
Global Culture• Globalisation is the process by which events in one part of the world come to influence what happens elsewhere in the world.• The world has become increasingly interconnected: socially politically and economically.• Economically through the stock markets• Politically world leaders have interest who they ally themselves with.• Socially, trends and fashions in the large cities spread quickly to other cities.
EXAM FOCUS• Define culture • Identify two ways in which material culture differs from non-material culture • Explain what is meant by ‘folk’ culture • Explain the difference between ‘high’ and ‘low’ culture • Suggest 3 characteristics of the globalisation of culture • Describe the different types of cultures 
Characteristics of POPULAR CULTURE• Constantly changing• Based in large, heterogeneous groups of people• Based mainly in urban areas• Material goods mass-produced by machines in factories• Weaker family structure• Distinct division of labor with highly specialized professions and jobs• Contributions to the spread of popular culture • Industrialization • Urbanization • Rise of formal education • Resultant increase in leisure time
CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBAL CULTURE• Increasing connections between various parts of the world• Global availability of cultural products (KFC, McDonalds, curry)• Access to diversity of cultural products (food, music, clothing)• Global media corporations (Sky, Disney, Apple)• Internet access (WWW, Facebook, twitter)• Global advertising campaigns (McDonalds, Pepsi, Nike)• International tourism
Characteristics of SUBCULTURE• Based around ethnicity, social class or age• Functionalist perspective• People select norms and values and lifestyles
Characteristics of MASSCULTURE• Culture that is produced for mass consumption• Value laden as information is ‘dumbed down’ superficial and bland (goodies and baddies stereotypes)• Consumers are seen as passive and easily manipulated• Consumers lack critical judgement of the society in which they live• Ruling class exploit working class as media represent capitalist system as normal• create false needs through advertising at same time make profits
Characteristics of HIGH CULTURE• The tastes or wealthy and educated people (elite)• The opposite is low culture (mass)• To understand high culture requires access to a particular kind of education• Ruling class seen more intellectual• Value laden as agencies of socialisation present some cultural products as more ‘worthy’ than others – Opera or Soap opera?