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  1. 1. Socialisation, Culture and Identity Theoretical Introduction
  2. 2. What are Perspectives?Perspectives describe the underpinning schools ofthought behind the development of Sociology.Throughout coming sessions, we will be lookingclosely at:• Functionalism• Marxism• Symbolic Interactionism• Postmodernism• And a little bit of feminism
  3. 3. Key Concepts It would be a good idea to add these to your glossary...• Values• Norms• Status• Roles• Culture Do you know what these concepts mean? Take a few minutes to discuss in pairs. Can you come up with some examples to illustrate your answers?
  4. 4. Values Values describe general principles or beliefs about what is desirable and worthwhile.They provide society with general guidelines for behaviour and what is considered important. Can you think of any British values?
  5. 5. NormsNorms are social rules that define our behaviour in social situations. They are essentially Values in action. Can you think of any norms in Britain?
  6. 6. Status Status describes our position on society, in the eyes of others. For sociologists, there are two types of status;Ascribed status e.g. given at birth and,Achieved status e.g. earned through effort
  7. 7. RolesRoles describe behaviours expected of people in certain positions in society.We all play many different roles in our lifetimes. Can you identify any of yours?
  8. 8. CultureCulture describes the learned and shared way of life of any society.A culture can include language, beliefs, customs, dress, diet, norms and values.Our culture helps us to relate to others socially.
  9. 9. Functionalism• Structuralist Theory• Socialisation is key• Talcott Parsons 1979
  10. 10. Still Functionalism…• Internalised moral codes = Common culture• Social solidarity• Social integration• Value consensus
  11. 11. More Functionalism…• Organic AnalogyHuman Body SocietyHeart FamilyTurn to page 2 in your booklets..Discuss points 1-3 in pairs.Feedback in 5 minutes.
  12. 12. Evaluation of Functionalism• Is society really that harmonious?• What about conflict? (Marxism)• Too deterministic. (Symbolic Interactionism)
  13. 13. Check Your Understanding!White text books, page 5…A’s complete the ‘check your understanding’ box.B’s complete activity in the green box.We will feed back in 10 minutes… GO!
  14. 14. Warm up!1. Name a type of status.. Give an example.2. Can you name three general features of culture?3. Can you name a universal value?4. Queuing is a British norm- what is the value?5. Define the following functionalist terms:• Value consensus• Social integration• Social solidarity• Organic analogy
  15. 15. Marxism• Structuralist Theory• Focus on class conflictKarl Marx 1883
  16. 16. Still Marxism...BourgeoisieProletariat
  17. 17. Marxism continued…• Economic production fundamental to survival.• The means of production owned by the bourgeoisie. money materials knowledge
  18. 18. Marxism Continued...• This power struggle lead the proletariat workforce to be exploited as they are forced to sell their labour at whatever cost in order to survive.• Marx suggested that in time the proletariat would develop a class consciousness and over throw the bourgeoisie- but this never happened.
  19. 19. Why do we put up with it?• Ruling Class Ideology…Althusser (1971) the role of social institutions isto legitimate social class inequalities by making ruling class values ‘the norm’.
  20. 20. Marxism Continued...Marxist sociologists believe that all social institutions help to socialise the workingclasses in to accepting ruling class culture. How does education do this? How does the media do this?Discuss in your pairs and feed back in 5.
  21. 21. Evaluation of Marxism• Too much focus on the economy• What about the middle class?• One dimensional- too focused on conflict.
  22. 22. Check Your Understanding!White textbooks page 9A’s Exploring Capitalist ValuesB’s Check your understandingWe will feed back in in 10 mins GO!
  23. 23. Warm Up!1. Not proletariat...2. Not communism...3. The proletariat work force are... by the ruling classes.4. Knowledge, materials and money describe the ‘means of....’5. Describes a system based on reward... And begins with ‘m’.
  24. 24. Symbolic InteractionismInteractionist TheorySocial ActionErving Goffman 1982
  25. 25. Why is she crying??
  26. 26. Are You a Puppet?• Reject structuralist theories as ignoring individual interaction• Our behaviour is actually developed through our exposure to social symbols and our experience of interaction• We are not a product of our environment, but our environment is a product of us
  27. 27. Symbolic Interactionism and Identity• Social Identity• Personal Identity• Self Identity
  28. 28. Goffman says…Interaction is simply successful roleplaying in the drama of every day life.Stage = environmentActors = individuals in certain rolesStage directions = Social symbols
  29. 29. Labelling TheoryInteractionist TheoryMaster statusHoward Becker 1963
  30. 30. What is a Master Status?This is Zig… … a CRIMINAL
  31. 31. Criminal actAccepts Prison label S.F.P Cannot Labelled as find work criminal
  32. 32. Check your understanding...Read pages 5 and 6 in your basics booklet.. Have a go at creating your own flow diagram depicting the reinforcement of negative behaviour in school.In 5 mins, volunteers can share their diagrams with the class.
  33. 33. More checking your understanding...Turn to pages 14 and 15 in the white text books.A’s complete ‘check your understanding’ on page 14.B’s complete ‘exploring social institutions’ on page 15. Work individually for 5 mins then share your thoughts with your partner.
  34. 34. Warm Up!In your own words, define the following terms…Master StatusSelf-fulfilling ProphecySubjective (in terms of identity)Social symbols
  35. 35. Postmodernism• Society is changing and fragmenting.• Meta-narratives can no longer hope to explain the structure of society.• Instead, we must understand choice and diversity as leading factors in our experience of the social world.
  36. 36. First Came Modernity• Industrialisation• Urbanization• Centralised Government• Rational and Scientific Thinking
  37. 37. Postmodernism• Globalisation• Increased Choice• Fragmentation• Knowledge as Relative not Fact
  38. 38. Postmodernism and Identity• Steve Taylor 1999 Society has been transformed in to ‘something resembling an endless shopping mall where people now have much greater choice about how they look, what they consume and what they believe in’
  39. 39. Criticisms of Postmodernism• Social class, gender and ethnicity are still important identity factors.• Although consumerism is important, in order to consume, we need money, so choice is still limited.
  40. 40. Check your understanding...Work together through pages 7 and 8 in your basics booklet.Once you have done that, read through pages 16 to 18 in the white text books and have a go at answering the questions on page 18.
  41. 41. Homework:PART 1Access the AS Sociology site on Moodle and find the link to ‘Animal Farm’.Watch it and answer all questions on page 4 of your basics booklet.
  42. 42. Homework:PART 2 *this will be assessed*Define the concept of Status. Illustrate youranswer with examples.RolesNormsCulture
  43. 43. How do I do that?This homework will be testing your AO1 skills.It should take around 5 minutes to answer eachquestion.Clearly define the concept.Provide two examples.Expand on your examples.