functionalist Marxist• Education system like a sieve – • Does not provide equal it selects students by their ability and places them in opportunities to all in occupations best suited to their society talents and skills • Designed to benefit• All individuals have equal opportunities in their school powerful groups career – the system is • Teachers and schools do meritocratic – higher qualifications are rewarded with not favour working class jobs with higher pay. children so they under• Social mobility – based on perform merit students can achieve a higher position in society from where they started.
functionalist Marxist• Teaches the skills needed • Reinforces the class for work in a modern system industrial society • Children from working• Literacy, numeracy, ICT class families learn the• Vocational courses train skills for lower status pupils for the world of professions and children work from more powerful• Prepared pupils for their groups learn skills future occupational roles required for higher status occupations.
functionalist Marxist• Agency of socialization • Socializes people into where young people learn accepting the values of a common culture, beliefs powerful groups. and expectations. • Example – the value and• Knits society together – importance of hard work is people from different stressed to prepare a backgrounds learn to future workforce to accept become one whole hard work as normal when society they enter the workplace.
functionalism Marxist• For society to run • The social control in smoothly there must be school reflects social some means of regulating control in the wider people’s behaviour. society.• Schools act as an agency • The importance of of social control by obeying the teacher is teaching rules such as preparation for obeying punctuality and obedience your boss in the to authority. workplace.
functionalist Marxist• Learn about the political • Only certain ideas and system views tolerated in• Learn about your roles education and responsibilities as a • Radical ideas not citizen tolerated, rejected or• Using your vote in ridiculed elections wisely • Political views of the• Learn how to sit into your powerful come to be society and what brings accepted by individuals us together – Brutishness!
• Hierarchy• Competition• Social control• Gender role allocation• Lack of satisfaction• HIDDEN CURRICULUM!!!
• Mitsos and Brown 1998• In school factors are important in learning gender roles• Gender stereotyping in text books or absence of female role models in subjects such as maths or science.• Remember the day at Leeds uni
• Harris – 1993 – working class boys• Low self esteem and poor motivation• Less willing to struggle and overcome difficulties in their work• Boys more easily distracted in course work and poor at time management• Girls more willing to-do homework• Girls give more thought to their futures and see the importance of qualifications
• Moir and Moir – 1998• Schools have become too girl friendly and boys are forced to work in ways that do not suit them• Katz 2000• Pressure and fear of ridicule contribute to boys not wanting to be seen as being interested and engaged in their learning.
Marxist, Feminist, Functionalist and New Right
• Nuclear family key institution in society• Performs essential functions• Individuals have basic needs that need to be met for society to run smoothly• Four main functions• Reproduction – society needs new member to survive, family reproduces the human race and future workforce• Regulates sexual activity and promotes monogamy – married couples are expected to have only one sexual partner and extra-marital sex is viewed with disapproval
• Primary socialisation – new members of society need to support the norms and values of that society from an early age.• Through primary socialisation we become familiar with our culture and way of life in our society. We learn to obey and accept the rules• Emotional support and nurture – a place of safety where we support each other and this aids our well-being• Economic provision – provides food, shelter and looks after the needy in society – the young, the elderly and the sick• Critics of this view say that domestic abuse shows the negative side of family life and that it can also be a source of stress and conflict.
• More recent version of the functionalist approach• 1980s and 1990s• Nuclear family is the ideal family• Children more likely to develop into stable adults if brought up by both parents• Jewson 1994• Normal family – adults and their natural children• Woman caregiver man breadwinner• Duty to look after each other and provide for the sick, unemployed, homeless and elderly• Oppose gay rights, sexual freedom and abortion
• Conflict view• Critical of the family• The nuclear family allows social inequalities to continue from one generation to the next – rich able to pass on huge wealth – the social class system is reproduced from one generation to the next• Other advantages are also passed down through families such as education.• Though the socialization in the family lower class groups are taught to accept their position in society
• Conflict view• Critical of the family• Has a negative impact on the lives of women• The differences between men and women are socially constructed and the family contributes to this through primary socialization – different language, clothes, toys• Young children learn how they are expected to behave and take on the roles they see their parents perform• Patriarchal – male dominance over women• Marriage benefits men more than women