SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

3,866 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,866
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
18
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

  1. 1. Name:Homework BookletThis will help you attempt your essays so youhave no excuse for not getting an A grade in allyour assessments. 11
  2. 2. 1 0 Using material from Item 2B and elsewhere, assess the view that gender roles andrelationships have become more equal in modern family life. (24 marks Item 2B Some sociologists argue that a number of changes have taken place in gender roles and relationships within families. They suggest that changing attitudes to gender roles and increased participation by women in the labour market have led to more equality in modern family life. For example, Gershuny (1992) found that men were making more of an effort to do housework when their wives were in full-time employment. However, feminists are much more cautious about drawing such a conclusion. They point to inequalities of power and control that persist in modern family relationships. In this band, analysis and evaluation will be explicit and relevant, and answers will show sound, conceptually detailed knowledge and understanding of sociological material on gender roles and relationships within families, drawn from Item 2B and elsewhere. This will be accurately and sensitively interpreted and applied to the demands of the question. Candidates will consider a variety of views such as feminist and ‘march of progress’ theorists. Concepts and issues such as the following may appear: triple shift, dual burden, domestic violence, gender role socialisation, decision-making, women’s paid work outside the home, conjugal roles, sons’ and daughters’ roles, house-husbands, domestic division of labour, financial control, symmetrical family. Analysis and evaluation may be developed, for instance by raising issues about the extent to which changes in gender roles and relationships have been exaggerated. Lower in the band, interpretation and application may be less selective, and/or analysis and evaluation less developed and more list-like. Higher in the band, interpretation will be more focused and evaluation more thorough, and answers may show a clear rationale in the organisation of material leading to a distinct conclusion. - Domestic division of Labour refers to……………………………….. - Parsons argues………….…………………………………………….. - Elizabeth Bott suggested……………………………………………… - However Willmott and Young argue…………………………………. - The feminist view of DDOL…………………………………………. - Oakley argued………………………………………………………… - Boulton suggested……………………………………………………. - Finally the Future foundation study found……………………………. - In conclusion………………………………………………………… -
  3. 3. Discuss the impact paid work has on division of domestic labour24mSociologists are interested in whether there is a link between………………………………………..Mee-Yee Kan found………………………………………………………………………………..Gershuny looked at the trend towards equality, he found……………………………………………Similarly Sullivan………however Crompton suggested…………………………………………….Silver and Schor argue that there are two major economic developments ………………………….However……………………………………………………………………………………………Feminists argue that women have acquired a dual burden. This refers to…………………………..Ferri and Smith…………………Morriss………………Gregson and Lowe……………………….Emotion work describes…………………………Marseden argues that……………………………Feminists have suggests that in lesbian relationshops…………Dunne looked at……………………However Dunne also found that paid work………………………………………………………….Therefore in conclusion……………………………………………………………………………....
  4. 4. Examine the patterns and reasons for domestic violence in society 24Domestic violence can be defined as……………………………………………………………Sociologists believe that domestic violence………………………………………………………Mirlees – Black found…………………………………………………………………………….Official statistics are limited because………………………………………………………………The radical feminist explanation of domestic violence argues that…………………………………However there are other groups that are affected by domestic violence …………………………Wilkinson suggested………………………………………………………………………………Overall the patterns and reasons…………………………………………………………………However we can never be certain because ………………………………………………………In conclusions…………………………………………………………………………………….
  5. 5. Examine the ways in which childhood can be said to be socially constructed. 24M A- Answers in this band will show sound, conceptually detailed knowledge and understanding of sociological material on the social construction of childhood. This will be accurately and sensitively interpreted and applied to the demands of the question. The candidate will show the ability to organise material and to analyse and/or evaluate it explicitly so as to produce a coherent and relevant answer. Concepts and issues such as the following may appear: the relation of children to the education system, children and the labour market, toxic childhood, dependence, familyand child-centredness, the commercialisation of childhood, age patriarchy, gender, class, ethnic differences, cross cultural and historical differences. Analysis and evaluation may be developed, for instance through international comparisons, or locating the account within a theoretical framework (for example New Right, feminist). Lower in the band, answers may examine a more limited range of material. Higher in the band, answers may be more detailed and complete, and/or may show a clear rationale in the organisation of material leading to a distinct conclusion .Childhood can be defined as ......................................................................................................The modern western notion of childhood...................Pilcher............................Wagg....................Cross cultural difference in childhood show that childhood may be.......Benedict..........................Punch……Holmes……Firth…..Malinowski……this suggests….The position of children changes across time .....................Aries................however......................To summarise the evidence for childhood being a social construct.............................................Reasons for childhood changes are.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  6. 6. Discuss the statement that “Childhood has definitely improved in recent history”24mThe march of progress view argues that………………….For instance children today are protected from..................................................Better healthcare………..…………………………………………………………………………Higher living standards…………………………………………………………………………….They also argue Families have become more……………………………………………………….The conflict view argues……………………………………………………………………………Inequalities amongst children………………………………………………………………………Gender differences………………………………………………………………………………..Ethnic differences…………………………………………………………………………………Finally social class inequalities also occur as……………………………………………………….Inequalities also occur between adults and children………………………………………………..Neglect and abuse……………..…………………………………………………………………Conflict view argues that adult still exert control over childrens space…………………………….They also control children access to resources……………………………………………………The concept of age patriarchy is used to describe……..…………………………………………In conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………….
  7. 7. Using material from Item 2B and elsewhere, assess the view that the nuclear familyis no longer the norm. (24 marks) . Item 2B A popular image of the family has been the ‘cereal packet’ nuclear family norm of a married couple and two children who are the couple’s biological offspring. The husband is the main breadwinner and the wife is primarily concerned with housework and childcare. It could be argued that this nuclear family is no longer the norm. A number of changes have taken place, such as the rise in the number of same-sex couples and of lone parents. These have resulted in families becoming much more diverse. However, Somerville (2000) argues that these changes are exaggerated. The apparent diversity of family life is based on a snapshot at any one time and, if a life cycle approach is taken, many people have a fairly conventional experience of the family In this band, analysis and evaluation will be explicit and relevant, and answers will show sound, conceptually detailed knowledge and understanding of sociological material on family diversity, drawn from Item 2B and elsewhere. This will be accurately and sensitively interpreted and applied to the demands of the question. Candidates will consider a variety of views . most likely feminist, New Right and postmodernist views etc may also figure. Concepts and issues such as the following may appear: rise in divorce and cohabitation, births outside marriage, women.s paid work outside the home, conjugal roles, same-sex couples, lone parents, extended family, neo-conventional family, beanpole family, the pure relationship, divorce-extended family, reconstituted family, etc. Analysis and evaluation may be developed, for instance by raising issues about the extent to which changes in the family have been exaggerated. Lower in the band, interpretation and application may be less selective, and analysis and evaluation less developed and more list-like. Higher in the band, interpretation and application will be more focused, and analysis and/or evaluation more thorough, and answers may show a clear rationale in the organisation of material leading to a distinct conclusion.
  8. 8. 09 Examine the reasons for changes in birth rates and family size since 1900. 24m 19 – 24 Answers in this band will show sound, conceptually detailed knowledge and understanding of sociological material on reasons for changes in birth rates and family size since 1900. This will be accurately and sensitively interpreted and applied to the demands of the question. The candidate will show the ability to organise material and toanalyse and/or evaluate it explicitly so as to produce a coherent and relevant answer. Concepts and issues such as the following may appear: changes in infant mortality, the fertility rate, child centredness, the availability of contraception, rise in lone parents, gay and lesbian partnerships, secularisation, changing role of women, later childbirth, the rise of feminism, the rise in births outside marriage, more career opportunities for women, the rising age of first marriage. Analysis and evaluation may be developed, for instance through a comparison of the relative importance of different factors, or locating the account within a theoretical framework (for example New Right, feminist). Lower in the band, answers may examine a more limited range of material. Higher in the band, answers may be more detailed and complete, and/or may show a clear rationale in the organisation of material leading to a distinct conclusionBirth rate can be defined as….there has been a decline in…..Factors that affect birth rate are number of …..and Total fertility rate…….The decline in birth rate us cause by several factors. The first is changing position….There has also been a decline in…..In addition children have become an…..Finally there has been a rise in child……The effects changes in birth rates has had are……..Family size on the other hand has also changed dramatically. In terms of marriage….The term cohabitation refers to….the reasons for its increase are…..the effect this has on familiesare….
  9. 9. Examine the reasons for, and the consequences of, the fall in the death rate since 1900. June 2010 19-24 Answers in this band will show sound, conceptually detailed knowledge and understanding of sociological material on both the reasons for, and the consequences of, the fall in the death rate. This will be accurately and sensitively interpreted and applied to the demands of the question. The candidate will show the ability to organise material and to analyse and/or evaluate it explicitly so as to produce a coherent and relevant answer. Concepts and issues such as the following may appear: life expectancy; infant mortality; improvements in health care; medical knowledge; sanitation; health education and living standards; ageing population; ageism; discrimination; dependency ratio; pension rights; positive aspects of retirement; beanpole family; extended family. Analysis and evaluation may be developed, for instance through comparing the relative importance of particular factors, or by discussing the likelihood of particular consequences.Death rate refers to……in the UK……..There has been several reasons for the decline in death rate…….Thomas Mckeown argues….There has been several medical improvements……In the 20th century more effective….Other social changes have also promoted the decline in death rate for instance….Life expectancy refers to….However despite this there are stil important class gender and regional differences, for example……The average age if the UK population is also rising…The ageing of population is a result of…..There are several consequences of this ageing population. For instance public services…Also the number of pensioners living alone has…..The old population also add to the dependency ration, for example……however….Much of the research on ageing has socially contrcuted it as a problem. The griffteh report….Ageism refers to…..Townsend argued….Thete has been important social policies that have been implemented to tackle the problemsfaced….Hirsch argued...
  10. 10. Using material from Item 2B and elsewhere, assess the view that, in today’s society,the family is losing its functions. (24 marks.....................................................................................................................................................................................................

×