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  1. 1. GCSE Sociology Crime and Deviance Looking for patterns Age Ethnicity Gender Class Location Essential Notes and Workbook What is the relationship between involvement in crime and age?HG GCSE Sociology Crime and Deviance
  2. 2. From your notes can you recall….What connection between age and crime is shown in the officialstatistics?Do self-report studies agree with official statistics?How do we explain the relationship between age and crime? What is the relationship between gender and crime?HG GCSE Sociology Crime and Deviance
  3. 3. What do the official statistics tell us about women and crime?What is the most common offence for both men and women?How can we explain why women are less involved in criminal activity?How do we explain women’s increasing involvement in crime?HG GCSE Sociology Crime and Deviance
  4. 4. What is the general pattern of women’s involvement in crime?What are the explanations for this change? Girl Gangs and Street ViolenceHG GCSE Sociology Crime and Deviance
  5. 5. Hundreds of girls are joining criminal gangs involved in violence anddrugs, experts warned yesterday. Alarmingly, at least three all-girl gangsare roaming the streets of London. A report by the Metropolitan PoliceAuthority found 10 per cent of gang participants are women andevidence suggests that girls as young as seven are joining up.The deputy chairman of the Metropolitan Policy Authority said yesterday:“The Met has long been aware of the involvement of females in criminalactivity. It has always been there. What I am worried about now areexclusively girl gangs.”Campaigners have warned that more must be done to find out exactlyhow many girls are in gangs with some estimates suggesting that theymake up around a third of membership.Source – Daily Mail 22nd August 2007What aspect of females’ involvement in crime has changed recently? Think…..What is meant by the chivalry effect?HG GCSE Sociology Crime and Deviance
  6. 6. What evidence is there to suggest that the chivalry effect is becomingless significant?The newspaper article identifies the emergence of exclusively girl gangs.Why might this raise more public concern that mixed or exclusively boygangs? What is the relationship between ethnicity and crime?Look at these statistics and answer the questions. white black asian other unknownHG GCSE Sociology Crime and Deviance
  7. 7. General 91.3 2.8 4.7 1.2 0populationPrison 81.5 11.0 6.0 1.1 0.4population 1. What percentage of the general population comprises “black” ethnic groups? 2. What percentage of the population comprises white ethnic groups? 3. Members of which ethnic groups are under-represented among those in the prison population relative to their proportion in the general population? 4. Looking at the information in the chart write a paragraph to explain the relationship between the general and prison population.Explaining the patternsWhat explanations can we find for the over-representation of someethnic groups in the prison population?HG GCSE Sociology Crime and Deviance
  8. 8. Look at this chart white black asian other UnknownGeneral 91.3 2.8 4.7 1.2 0populationStop and 72.3 15.9 8.1 1.5 2.1searchArrests 83.1 9.6 5.3 1.3 0.7Cautions 81.3 6.4 4.4 1.2 6.6Relative to the population which members of which ethnic groups are: 1. More likely to be stopped and searched? 2. Over represented among those arrested? 3. Under represented among those cautioned? Is Policing Fair?A view often expressed by sociologists and criminologists is that some people are“criminalised” while other (often more serious) offenders avoid police attention.Since catching offenders “in the act” is actually rare, police officers tend to focus theirattention on individuals they think are “likely” to be offenders. They do this bydeveloping a profile of a “typical” offender. These informal profiles are largely basedon two sources of informationHG GCSE Sociology Crime and Deviance
  9. 9. First officers’ own views and previous encounters with offenders. However theseencounters are problematic because they are rarely systematic. Most offenders arenever caught and those who are caught are either unlucky or slow (thus notrepresentative of offenders in general)Secondly, information from the public. However, accounts of offenders given byvictims or witnesses usually involve no more than descriptions of sex, age andethnicity – presumably because they are often the characteristics most obvious toonlookers.The central problem therefore, is that police have to operate with profiles that rely onsuch characteristics (young, black males etc.) rather than anything that is clearlylinked with potential or undetected offending. If the criteria usually used to selectindividuals for police attention are characteristics that people have little or no controlover (age, ethnicity, gender and social class) then only a narrow group of peoplebecomes subject to police attention, on grounds that are often not justifiable.Source Townsley and Marshall (2006) 1. Can you think of crimes that may “avoid police attention”? 2. According to this article – what are the two main sources of information used to base the “typical” offender on? 3. Looking at this article, write a paragraph to explain why the policing of young, black men can seem unfair.HG GCSE Sociology Crime and Deviance
  10. 10. What is the relationship between crime and class and locality?What does the evidence show about the number of working class peoplein the prison population?What are the explanations for this?HG GCSE Sociology Crime and Deviance
  11. 11. White collar crime – a definition.Why do these crimes go undetected?HG GCSE Sociology Crime and Deviance
  12. 12. What is the link between locality and crime?How can we explain the link between locality and crime?HG GCSE Sociology Crime and Deviance
  13. 13. Homework questionsWhat do sociologists mean by the terms white collar and corporatecrime?Explain two reasons why white collar and corporate crime may be under-represented in crime statistics.Explain briefly why there appears to be more crime in urban areas thanin rural areas.HG GCSE Sociology Crime and Deviance
  14. 14. HG GCSE Sociology Crime and Deviance