GLOBALISATION, THE MEDIA AND CULTURE Globalisation: the process by which societies become increasingly interconnected
Outline the cultural and media imperialism theories of globalisation
Debate over the role and effects of the media in an international perspective
THE WORLD HAS SHRUNK
We have looked at the media mainly from a national perspective
We now live in a society within a global system and therefore affected by the processes
FROM THE COMFORT OF OUR SOFAS
WHAT ARE YOU WEARING?
Look at the labels on your clothes
Which countries did they originate from?
Many of your favourite clothes are produced by people who work in sweatshops in Asia and Central America
‘ Globalisation’ is one of the most significant changes that has taken place over the last 30yrs.
Events in one part of the world increasingly affect other parts,
Activities in one nation have a growing impact on other nations
Global interactions become more and more frequent (goods, capital, people, knowledge, culture, fashion, beliefs etc)
Time space compression means that time is speeding up and space appears to be getting smaller
But what are the consequences? Does it empower local communities to produce their own media products or does it exploit them?
The meaning of globalisation can be divided into 4 main categories Global risks cross national boundaries The ‘credit crunch’ in 2008 began in the USA and has rapidly spread to financial markets across the world Ulrick Beck 1992 We live in a global risk society International financial institutions such as the World Bank and IMF have steadily grown provides loans to its 185 members Global warming, pollution, deforestation, depletion of fish stocks, oil spills, Aids and international terrorism The explosion at the nuclear power station at Chernobyl resulted in radioactive material blown westward reaching 20 countries. The emergence of a global consumerists culture. Sklair 2003 World is increasingly exposed to western tastes, styles and fashions, music and films Increase in nation states becoming members of international organisations. (EU, NATO) Growth in Transnational companies that can move production from one country to another The financial market is global Stock exchanges around the world means buying and selling 24/7
Globalisation: The process by which societies become increasingly interconnected political cultural risk economic
Imperialism refers to domination by one nation over another. Eg British colonial rule of the Raj in India
MEDIA and CULTURAL IMPERIALISM
Globalisation is linked to technological change
Technology is the product of capitalist societies
We can watch a war from the comfort of our homes
Advertising sells an idealised western life style
We can experience world events simultaneously
We can connect to people over great distances
It is now possible to travel around the world without ever having to eat indigenous food.
The décor and the menu is immediately recognisable
It is reassuring and familiar but also evidence of decline in local cultures
Does it produce a multicultural world through a flow of ideas in multi directions thus empowering developing countries to produce their own media products as well as being global players. (China)
Read pg 225 – 226 Jones & Jones and identify 4 points for each side of the debate
2. Write at least two paragraphs outlining the extent to which nation states are/are not helpless in the face of global media corporations.
Does it accentuate the unequal relationships between nations, enlarging the gulf between rich and poor through the domination of Transnational companies? or
Evaluation – cultural response
Different cultures respond to media put in different ways. Eg TV programmes (Big Brother, I’m a celebrity get me out of here) are sold to TV companies but local versions reflect local cultures.
Therefore challenging cultural imperialism
Evaluation – national and regional broadcasting
There is a steady increase in local broadcasting. In many countries home produced programmes are steadily replacing imports because they gel with the local cultures and 7/9 countries broadcast more locally produced programmes than imported ones.
Suggesting therefore that they are not being overwhelmed by western media products.
Evaluation – minority ethnic media
Local programmes from developing countries are exported to western society. In some cases producing their own media products that reflect their cultural origins. Eg Bollywood.
In USA minority ethnic groups such as Latinos have their own radio station, watch cable TV specifically designed for them.