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  • 1. Ethnicity Ethnic differences in Underachievement Summary Booklet.
  • 2. Tasks- Before I see you next:
    • Read and add notes to both mindmaps – there are more notes to add to internal factors as we have studied that more in class.
    • Try to answer the ‘quick questions’ without looking at the answers.
    • Answer the exam questions as homework.
    You should be well into your revision now as we only have a couple of lessons left!
  • 3. Ethnic Group: people who share a common history, customs and identity, as well as, in most cases, language and religion, and see themselves as a distinct unit. ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN ACHIEVEMENT- External Factors Evidence of differences DFES 2007: Whites and Asians on average do better than blacks. However there are significant variations among Asians. e.g. Indians do better than Pakistani’s and Bagladeshis. See the graphs in your booklets. Task: From your resources add to these brainstorms as much detail as possible. External Factors 1. Cultural Deprivation Intellectual and linguistic skills For
    • Against
    • Swann Report language not a major factor
    • Gilborn and Mirza – Ethinic minority pupils can still do very well without English as first language.
    Attitudes and Values Family structure and parental support Asian Values Against: Khan – Asian families ‘stress ridden’ bound by tradition and with a controlling attitude towards children , especially girls. For; Lupton: Adult authority model in Asian families- similar to that in school – do well! Criticisms Ignores positive effect of underachievement Caribbean girls have strong positive women role models. Not linked to self esteem – fail because of racism. Kiddie = blame and not necessarily culturally deprived – just different culture. Remember whatever view people take has important implications for where money and resources are pumped into. Remeber –some essays ask you to discuss external and internal explanations Possible solution= Compensatory education 2. Material Deprivation and Class White Working-class Families. Lack of physical necessities – housing, income 20% of ethnic minority households live in poverty. Swan Report (1985) Class accounts for at least 50%of the difference in achievement. Danger of over-estimating cultural deprivation and under estimating effect of poverty and material deprivation 3. Racism in wider society Rex (1986) Discrimination leads to social exclusion- worsens the poverty faced by ethnic minorities and reduces employment opportunities. Noon (1993) equivalent candidates – Evans and Patel – companies more likely to respond helpfully to ‘Evans’.
  • 4. Ethnic Group: people who share a common history, customs and identity, as well as, in most cases, language and religion, and see themselves as a distinct unit. ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN ACHIEVEMENT- Internal Factors Evidence of differences DFES 2007: Whites and Asians on average do better than blacks. However there are significant variations among Asians. e.g. Indians do better than Pakistani’s and Bagladeshis. See the graphs in your booklets. Task: From your resources add to these brainstorms as much detail as possible. External Factors 1. Labelling and Teacher Racism Gillborn & Youdell (2000) Remember whatever view people take has important implications for where money and resources are pumped into. Remember –some essays ask you to discuss external and internal explanations 2. Pupils responses and subcultures 3. The Ethnocentric curriculum Coard (1971)- African Caribbean Asian Pupils Cecile Wright (1992) Fuller and Mac an Ghail: rejecting negative labels Mirza: Failed strategies for avoiding racism & teacher Types. Sewell (1998): The variety of boys responses. ‘ attitude or policy that gives priority to one particular ethnic group while disregarding others’ Coard(2005) Image of black people as inferior in history. 4. Institutional Racism 5. Selection and segregation. Gilborn (1997) argues that marketisation has given schools a greater chance to select and this has put some ethnic minorities at a disadvantage. Connolly- Identities Muslim boys Archer (2003)
  • 5.  
  • 6. Quick questions
    • List the following groups in order of achievement at GCSE, highest first: whites, Blacks, Bangledeshis. Chinese, Indians
    • State one criticism of cultural deprivation theory as an explanation for ethnic differences in achievement.
    • Name three Sociologists who have studied the labelling of ethnic minority pupils
    • List three ways in which pupils may respond to negative labels
    • What is meant by ethnocentric curriculum?
    • Suggest two reasons why marketisation might result in increased ethnic segregation in education
    • How did you do?! Mark your own Questions
  • 7. Ethnicity and Education Answers
    • 1. Chinese; Indian; Whites; Bangladeshis; blacks
    • 2. Cultural deprivation theory ignores the positive effects of ethnicity on achievement e.g. black girls. Black pupils underachieve because of racism, not cultural deprivation. Black pupils are different not culturally deprived, but schools are ethnocentric.
    • 3. Sociologists include Gillborn, Bourne, Foster, Fuller and Sewell.
    • 4. By accepting the label and fulfilling the prophecy; by ignoring it; by seeking to disprove it e.g. by working harder.
    • 5. A curriculum that gives priority to one culture and ignores others e.g. teaching only European languages, not Asian ones.
    • 6. More scope for selection of pupils ; more scope for negative stereotypes to influence admissions; use of language as a selection mechanism
  • 8. Ethnicity Exam Questions
    • Explain what is meant by the term ‘ethnic group’ (2)
    • Suggest three ways in which the education system may encourage separation between children of different backgrounds (6)
    • Outline the ways in which factors in children’s home background may lead to differences in achievement levels between different groups (12)
    • Assess the importance of school factors such as racism and pupil’s responses to racism in creating ethnic differences in educational achievement. (20)