RECAP (AO1)1. Using the post-its, write out one family type.2. One another post-it, give 2 reasons why there has been an increase in one of the following; single-parent families, same-sex families, co-habitees reconstituted familiesStick your post-its on the relevant flipchart paper atthe front of the room.
OBJECTIVES Explain a range of different sociological views of family diversity Understand the difference between modernist and postmodernist approaches to family diversity Compare and contrast sociological explanations of family diversity Create an essay plan that demonstrates A01 and A02 skills for a question on family diversity
VIEWS COVERED Functionalism – Talcott Parsons The New Right – Charles Murray Neo – Conventional family – Robert Chester The Rapoports – 5 types of family diversity Feminism - Stacey Postmodernism – David Cheal
MODERNISM AND FAMILY DIVERSITY Perspectives such as functionalism and the New Right are describes as ‘modernist’ They see modern society as having a fairly fixed, clear-cut and predictable structure. One best family type – Nuclear familyWhat other sociological perspectives might beconsidered modernist? (AO1)
FUNCTIONALIST Parsons – there is a Activity ‘functional fit’ between the Watch the video clip nuclear family and society. It http://www.youtube.com/wat meets the needs of society ch?v=L3uZrIYfoL0&feature= Other family types are player_embedded inadequate, abnormal or Make a list of functions the deviant, since they are less family provides for able to perform the individuals and wider functions required of the society (AO1) family. Why might a single parent There is no need for family or same-sex family be diversity considered inadequate or abnormal and not able to provide these functions? (AO2)
THE NEW RIGHT A group of thinkers and commentators who believe very strongly in tradition. They tend to be against change and support the Conservative party.
THE NEW RIGHT Conservative and anti- Key thinker – Charles feminist perspective on the Murray family Firmly opposed to family diversity What social problems could be Only one correct family type caused by the decline in the – the patriarchal, nuclear nuclear family? (A01) family with a clear-cut division of labour between the husband and wife (instrumental and expressive). The decline of the nuclear family and growth of family diversity are the cause of many social problems
NEW RIGHT CONTINUED….. They see lone-parent families What other family types as unnatural and harmful. would they disapprove of and Lone mothers are a burden why? (AO1, AO2) on the welfare state and cannot discipline children properly. What problems do you think there with the functionalist They disapprove of mothers and New Right approach? working, caring for families (AO2) should be a priority Marriage is essential for creating a stable environment Cohabitation and divorce create instability Welfare and benefits discourage men from working and encourage a ‘dependancy culture’.
TASK – YOUR GOVERNMENT (AO2) A - You are to come up with approx. 5 laws, benefits, or solutions to deal with the ‘threats’ to the family put forward by the New Right. (imagine you are a New Right thinker) B - You are to come up with approx. 5 liberal (left wing) laws, benefits, or solutions that would deal with the ‘true’ issues faced by families today. Try and convince your partner that your government ideas will benefit society more.
THE RAPOPORTS: FIVE TYPES OF FAMILYDIVERSITY We have moved away from the traditional nuclear family to a range of different types1. Organisational diversity – differences in ways family roles are organised2. Cultural diversity – different cultural, religious and ethnic groups have different structures3. Social class diversity – family structure and practices may be different based on income4. Life-stage diversity – life cycle5. Generational diversity – different generations have different attitudes and experiences towards family life
CULTURAL AND CLASS DIVERSITY In your own words, summarize the trends in the table.You will need to work in pairs. One person will research ethnicity, the other class. Skim read the resources on class/ethnicity. Choose 2 or 3 studies/theorists that explain class/ethnic diversity and briefly summarise in a table. (10 mins) Explain you findings to your partner, who will then take notes in the remaining parts of the table. (10 mins)
ROBERT CHESTER – THE NEO-CONVENTIONALFAMILY There has been increased Age Family Family Type family diversity, but not as 0-10 Nikki is born and significant as others make stays with both out. The extent and parents importance of family diversity 11-13 Nikki’s parents divorce, she is exaggerated stays with mum Neo Conventional Family - A 14-18 Mum re-marries nuclear family but with a who has a son of his own division of labour between 18-21 Nikki shares a the male and female flat with students Dual-earner family 22 -25 Nikki lives alone The nuclear family is still the 25 -28 Nikki meets Pete family most people aspire to. and they live together Due to our life cycle, most 28 -48 They marry and people will still be part of a have 3 kids nuclear family at some point 49 -78 Their children in their lives leave home 78 -88 Pete dies and Nikki lives in a retirement home
FEMINISTS Stacey - Greater family diversity has benefited women, enabling them to free themselves from patriarchal oppression and shape the family to meet their needs. In what ways might the nuclear family oppress women? (AO1) Can you think of a criticism of this approach? (AO2)
POSTMODERNISM AND FAMILY DIVERSITY David Cheal – family structures are fragmented and individuals have much more choice in their lifestyles, personal relationships and family arrangements. Family life is more diverse than ever before and its shape depends on the active choices people make about how to live their lives, e.g. whether to get divorced, cohabit, come out as gay etc.Are friends the new family?
ACTIVITY (AO2)Read back through each of the theories. Next to eachslide write whether the view; Is against family diversity Believes greater family diversity doesn’t really exist Supports family diversity Believes we now have greater family diversity
SUMMARYAgainst Family Greater family For family Greater familydiversity diversity diversity diversity does doesn’t exist exists
RE-CAP1. Using the post-its, write up to 3 different theoretical views on family diversity (try to include names/perspectives/key concepts)2. On a separate post-it, write down what you think is the best explanation of family diversity and why OR which is the worst explanation and why.3. Put the post-its on the relevant flipchart paper
TASKAssess sociological explanations of the nature andextent of family diversity today. Start by outlining the nature and extent of diversity – different family types and some of the reasons why they have increased/decreased (AO1) Discuss a range of different views – functionalist, new right, postmodernist, feminist, Chester, Rapoports. Compare and contrast them to each other. (AO1, AO2) Conclusion – which is the best explanation for modern British society and why? (AO2)