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Building Tomorrows World 2009

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Melissa Sterry's presentation 'Building Tomorrow's World | The Emerging Principles of Twenty First Century Design' show at the Sustainable Design Network Seminar 2009 at Loughborough University, held …

Melissa Sterry's presentation 'Building Tomorrow's World | The Emerging Principles of Twenty First Century Design' show at the Sustainable Design Network Seminar 2009 at Loughborough University, held on 12th June 2009.

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  • 1. BUILDING TOMORROW’S WORLD THE EMERGING PRINCIPLES OF TWENTY FIRST CENTURY DESIGN By Melissa Sterry of Societás
  • 2. THE EMERGING PRINCIPLES OF 21ST CENTURY DESIGN… • MULTI-FUNCTION • MICRO-ENERGY • LIFETIME GUARANTEE • CLOSED LOOPS • MATERIAL MINIMALISM • ORGANIC ORIGINS • FORM FOLLOWING FUNCTION • NATURE DICTATING DESIGN • TRANSITIONAL TRENDS © Societas Ltd 2009 All Rights Reserved
  • 3. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: MULTI-FUNCTION DRIVER: As mankind runs out of space and materials, everything from buildings and civic structures to electrical goods will be multi-tasking 20% of the naturally occurring chemical elements will run out within 100 years (source Chemistry Innovation) By 2100 global demand for copper will outstrip the amount extractable from the ground As predicted new technologies appear / populations grow some will be exhausted more quickly - • Indium (used in LCD televisions vs solar cells) 5-10 years supply left • Platinum (use in hydrogen fuel cell) 15 years supply left • Silver - 15-20 years supply left IMPACTS: • Expect to see home-entertainment systems that fuse a PC, stereo, television, digital recording and security system into one • Handheld communications devices featuring yet more diverse functionality • Everyday objects featuring micro-energy generation functions • Buildings / Civic structures incorporating renewable energy creation / light harvesting technology © Societas Ltd 2009 All Rights Reserved
  • 4. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: MULTI-FUNCTION Michael Jantzen Turbine Wind Tunnel Bridge - made of steel and aluminum • Wind turns five wheels - storing energy for future use in the same way a windmill does • Creates a sound as you make your way across the bridge - wind chime effect
  • 5. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: MULTI-FUNCTION Ross Lovegrove - Car on a Stick • Solar-Powered Transport Pod by day • Telescopic pole beneath so can be stored upright on a stick when not in use to save space • Transforms into a street light by night
  • 6. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: MICRO-ENERGY DRIVER: Need to drastically reduce quantity of fossil fuels burned to prevent uncontrollable climate change, Peak Oil, Fuel security, desire for energy independence (both at consumer and country level) Climate Change Act created on the premise that 400 parts per million carbon in atmosphere (roughly 80% lower than the 1990 baseline) would provide relative certainty that we will not exceed 2 degree increase NASA’s Jim Hansen announced in 2008 that 325 parts per million should be our target - stating a 2 degree increase should already be built in. Forecasts 450 p/p/m carbon in atmosphere would trigger 60-80 metre increase in sea levels globally IMPACTS: • People-powered devices, such as gyms and body-mounted devices that harness kinetic energy - examples rucksacks with handles that harvest kinetic energy to power mobiles/laptops • Homes / businesses becoming micro-energy generation plants - growing range of options available including VAWTs, inflatable solar pods, air-born wind turbines • All moving structures potentially providing energy - current examples children’s roundabouts/seesaws, swing doors in offices, yo-yo powered MP3’s • Structures that harvest energy from impact - dance floors/crowd movement, harvesting of kinetic impact of raindrops © Societas Ltd 2009 All Rights Reserved
  • 7. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: MICRO-ENERGY Magenn’s Power Air Rotor products • Electrical bird and bat friendly mobile air-born generator systems • Rotate in the wind and literally glide through the air generating electricity • The first Magenn products come to market in 2010
  • 8. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: MICRO-ENERGY Yo-yo powered MP3 player by Chris Aimone and Tomek Bartczak • Charged by 10-12 tosses per hour
  • 9. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: MICRO-ENERGY New York’s Fluxxlab studio’s ‘Revolution Door’ Central • Core is a mechanical system that harnesses the kinetic energy of the doors spinning movement and converts it to electricity to power offices
  • 10. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: MICRO-ENERGY Cool Earth’s concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system • Inexpensive materials, radically reducing material requirements, as well as plant deployment costs and time • One CPV plant covering 150 miles by 150 miles would generate enough power to meet all the electrical needs of the United States until 2030 • Each 8-foot-diameter concentrator is made of plastic film and has a transparent upper hemisphere and a reflective lower hemisphere. When inflated with air the concentrator naturally forms a shape that concentrates sunlight onto a PV cell placed at the focal point
  • 11. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: LIFETIME GUARANTEE DRIVER: Supplies of many natural resources so scare plans are afoot to mine landfill sites. Running out of landfill space Currently 90% of all products are waste within 6 months of purchase For every tonne of household waste that we throw away, there's a further 5 tonnes of materials that have been used in the manufacturing of the products consumed In 2007 local government leaders warned we are on course to run out of landfill space by 2016 IMPACTS: • Manufacturing business models changed to factor in far greater sales of spare parts • Goods designed so easy to disassemble and repair • Return of quality not quantity • Durability becoming key selling point • Re-fitting and re-furbishing of goods © Societas Ltd 2009 All Rights Reserved
  • 12. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: LIFETIME GUARANTEE Lighting Science Group - LED lightbulbs • 80% less energy used than incandescent bulbs • Replaced every 50,000 hours (10 to 30 years) • Estimated cost saving over lifetime $740
  • 13. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: LIFETIME GUARANTEE Junky Styling - London Fashion Week A/W ‘09 Collection • Made from secondhand clothing
  • 14. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: CLOSED LOOPS DRIVER: Zero-waste as natural resources and landfill become scare United States Department of Agriculture’s crop simulation model GOSSYM indicates that as the temperature increases general trends we can expect to see include decline in cotton production, unreliable yields, greater irrigation requirements and lower net returns Need to reduce water footprint, as our current trajectory would mean by 2020 we will need 17% more water than is currently available* Embedded water content in litres of a pair of shoes - 8000, a cotton t-shirt - 4100* IMPACTS: • Lifecycle of product factored in at initial design phase • Diversity in look and feel of product lines • Increased production costs (*Sources World Council/UNESCO/DEFRA) © Societas Ltd 2009 All Rights Reserved
  • 15. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: CLOSED LOOPS Worn Again - Trainer • Pre and post consumer and corporate waste materials upcycled into shoes, bags & accessories • Re-use of materials, preventing waste from going to landfill • Upcycled products made out of fire hoses, air balloons, uniforms, seat belts
  • 16. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: MATERIAL MINIMALISM DRIVER: Resource scarcity driving material costs higher, need to reduce carbon and water footprint Mies van der Rohe principle of ‘Less is More’ being applied to use of materials in production of goods and packaging. However, complex analysis required to establish whether a lighter material is the most sustainable option - considerations include material lifecycle - its water footprint, carbon footprint, local vs global production, can material be recycled/is it bio-degradable IMPACTS: • New materials development - improvements in performance, strength and durability • Everything from electrical goods to cars becoming sleeker and lighter • Goods becoming increasingly robust • New boundaries in nanotechnology © Societas Ltd 2009 All Rights Reserved
  • 17. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: MATERIAL MINIMALISM CURB - 100% sustainable media • Clean advertising • Sand / Compost Art • Logrow / Ad Field • Mow Ad / Crop Ad • Rake Ad • Snow Tagging • Solar Art • H2 Show
  • 18. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: MATERIAL MINIMALISM CURB - 100% sustainable media
  • 19. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: ORGANIC ORIGINS DRIVER: Da Vinci realized that nature holds the solutions to some of the most difficult design and engineering challenges. His observations of the natural world inspired him to design a helicopter, a solar power system and many other inventions centuries ahead of their time Influential contemporary designers looking to nature for inspiration include Ross Lovegrove, Jean- Marie Massaud, manufacturers include pneumatic and electrical automation technology company Festo IMPACTS: • Bio-mimcry of movement - examples include Festo’s AquaPenguin • Aesthetics inspired by nature - examples include Jean-Marie Massaud’s ‘Manned Cloud Hotel’ • Structures replicating natural forms - examples include Ross Lovegrove’s DNA staircase • Products that mimic natural processes - ‘Wonderland’ dissolving dresses © Societas Ltd 2009 All Rights Reserved
  • 20. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: ORGANIC ORIGINS Jean-Marie Massaud - Manned Cloud Hotel •700ft x 270ft x 170ft super-airship with 20 bedrooms, a restaurant, library, lounge, bar, gym and spa •Only requiring re-fuelling after 5,000 kilometers, able to remain airborne for roughly 3 days, traveling at a cruising speed of 80mph, with a maximum speed of 105mph •Ferrying up to 40 passengers in the sky for a serene cruise around the world, its terraces with panoramic windows will bring a whole new dimension to sight-seeing
  • 21. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: ORGANIC ORIGINS Ross Lovegrove - DNA Staircase • Inspired by DNA and human bone • Made it from fiberglass and unidirectional carbon via bladder molding • High-performance composite manufacturing to produce hollow lightweight form
  • 22. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: ORGANIC ORIGINS Festo’s bionic AquaPenguin • Hydrodynamic body contour designed with elegant wing propulsion and head and tail sections that can be moved in all directions • Able to manoeuvre in cramped spatial conditions and turn on the spot, but unlike biological counterparts, can also swim backwards • An autonomous underwater vehicle that independently navigates itself, supported by a 3D sonar system, which allows communication with surroundings and other robotic penguins • Expect to see technology developed for use in underwater research and exploration
  • 23. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: ORGANIC ORIGINS Ross Lovegrove - Solar Trees • Solar-powered urban street lighting •Solar branches follow the sun
  • 24. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: FORM FOLLOWING FUNCTION DRIVER: Greater efficiency needs from buildings, vehicles and products due to dwindling natural resources and need to reduce carbon and water footprints How much more efficient do we need to be? 1 in 3 people currently living below the poverty line - need to stretch resources 1/3 more + Population of 7 Billion projected to potentially rise to 10 Billion by 2050 + Need to reduce existing level of consumption by 2/3 in the UK, 4/5 in the US, 6/7 in the UAE + Need to drastically reduce carbon/greenhouse gas emissions and water footprints IMPACTS: •Bullet-shaped cars and vehicles - aerodynamic shapes inspired by aviation design - examples being the Aptera and Volkswagen’s 235 mpg bullet-shaped hybrid • 3 wheels not 4 - reducing friction on the ground and enabling greater fuel efficiency • Joined-up thinking applied to urban planning - buildings angled to keep out cold winds out and let warm summer winds through, buildings angled for optimum solar and lighting efficiency, rainwater capture, local food production - example ARUP’s Dongtan project in China • Development of lighter, stronger materials - often inspired by natural structures - example Ross Lovegrove’s DNA staircase made of hollow lightweight fiberglass and unidirectional carbon © Societas Ltd 2009 All Rights Reserved
  • 25. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: FORM FOLLOWING FUNCTION Steve Fambro’s Aptera • 300 miles or more to the gallon • Shape minimizes air resistance • 3 wheels minimize drag on the road • Interior and exterior LED lighting • Solar assisted climate control system • Recycled materials • Both electric and plug-in hybrid models • Top speed of 90mph • 0-60 in around 10 seconds • Ample storage - interior large enough to fit a surf board
  • 26. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: FORM FOLLOWING FUNCTION Ecotricity - Greenbird • The most advanced wind-powered vehicle on Earth • Fuses a combination of technology found on Aircraft and Formula 1 cars • Achieves speeds up to 126.1 mph with no engine • Driven by British engineer Richard Jenkins • Greenbird smashed the world land speed record for wind-powered vehicles in winds of just 30mph
  • 27. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: FORM FOLLOWING FUNCTION University of Southampton & Checkmate SeaEnergy’s Anaconda funded by EPSRC 200m long flexible rubber tube filled with seawater and sealed at both ends that sits on the ocean surface generating wave energy Each passing wave squeezes the rubber, producing a bulge that ripples down the tube, powering an electric turbine at the end. Scaled down versions of the concept are currently being tested in wave tanks
  • 28. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: NATURE DICTATING DESIGN DRIVER: A need to find new ways to capture the potential of natural resources A recent report by MIT on Enhanced Geothermal Systems estimated 2% of the heat below the continental United States could provide 2,500 times the country's total annual energy use 90-95% less greenhouse gas is created from a geo-thermal electricity plant than from coal-fired power station Though 150 million kilometers from the Sun, anything up to 1 kW per square meter of power reaches the Earth’s surface. If we harvested it all, the amount of sunlight hitting the Earth's surface in one hour is enough to power the entire world for a year Oceans cover more than 70% of Earth's surface making them our largest solar collectors. Oceans produce two types of energy: mechanical energy from tides and waves and thermal energy from the sun's heat In Antartica where we find the world’s biggest waves, wave energy potential equates to 80 Mega Watts per mile of wave crest length, which converts to 150 100w bulbs per foot As an energy concentrator - the energy per square meter of a wave along the Northern coasts of Europe can be 200 to 400 times the energy density of the sun at 20,000 to 70,000 watts, compared to around 100 watts from ground-level solar and 1000 watts from wind © Societas Ltd 2009 All Rights Reserved
  • 29. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: NATURE DICTATING DESIGN DRIVERS Cont… Hydrogen is the lightest element with an atomic mass of just 1.00794 g/mol and makes up 75% of the universe's elemental matter The third most abundant element on the earth’s surface, it is generated from water by `splitting’ it from oxygen, usually via electrolysis. However, it is not an energy source in it’s own right, but a carrier of energy, uses include hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells for use in vehicles and for grid load balancing and in theory emissions of these cells would consist of pure water At the University of California researchers have engineered a strain of green microalgae that could, with further refinements, produce huge amounts of hydrogen through photosynthesis, based on observation of normal photosynthesis processes IMPACTS: • Rainwater harvesting systems integrated to all future buildings / urban developments • Sunlight harvesting systems integrated into all future building - example M&S’s new eco factory in China featuring solar light pipes to light factory floor naturally • Air conditioning systems that are based on natural systems - example ARUP’s Dongtan city laid out to capture warm summer winds to cool streets and buildings • Shaded areas creating in car parks and outdoor areas to cool vehicles/people - often featuring solar panels and other micro-renewable energy technologies © Societas Ltd 2009 All Rights Reserved
  • 30. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: NATURE DICTATING DESIGN Parans - Solar Fibre Optic Lighting Collects natural sunlight and feeds into interior spaces via optical cables, which flows out through Parans patented luminary technology Light can be collected from roofs or exterior walls - using optical lenses to collect and concentrate the light
  • 31. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: TRANSITIONAL TRENDS DRIVER: Dwindling resources, need to reduce consumption, new socio-cultural framework In past centuries aesthetic trends emerged over years or decades and were slow to shift - the corset being just one example As communications became more advanced, feeding information and ideas through to the public at an ever-faster rate, an ever-greater number of trends were created Throughout most of the 20th Century fashion was presented bi-annually; there was a spring / summer collection and an autumn/winter collection Towards the latter part of the last century four collections were presented annually by most major fashion retailers – two seasonal collections and two inter-seasonal collections By the early 21st Century we had entered what fashion critic Caryn Franklin terms ‘a trend frenzy’ with trends emerging so quickly that even the most enthusiastic shopper would struggle to keep up IMPACTS: • Several trends co-existing at any one time • Eclectic approach to style - old mixed with new, designer with high street, home-made with shop bought and garments from one era with those of another • Hundreds of micro trends, which ultimately slow down the emergence of new mega trends © Societas Ltd 2009 All Rights Reserved
  • 32. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: TRANSITIONAL TRENDS Little Shrimp - Kids Printed T-Shirt •Could be created from scraps of fabric from secondhand clothes or off-cuts from the factory floor •Fusion of old / new styles •100% organic cotton
  • 33. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: THE LIGHT FANTASTIC DRIVER: Need to slow fashion in clothing / interiors, yet meet society’s desire for ‘newness’ and ‘change’, evolving technology in lighting and micro-energy generation Currently an inbuilt assumption that ‘eco’ design need be low tech. Dramatic developments in micro- energy generation and lighting technology will facilitate new ‘intelligent materials’ and products - in particular those which can transform and adapt to different conditions In the 1980’s we saw heat reactive textiles that changed colour - today experiments continue with new materials that respond in a myriad of ways to heat, light and humidity IMPACTS: • Homes and businesses given a new look with light, not paint / new furnishings - example being the The Pod at University of Salford’s ThinkLab, which uses Philips LED lighting technology • Growth in market for lights with multi-colour filter options, such as Philips Living Colour LEDs • More diverse settings on lights - as well as dimmer switches and colour options, possibilities could include ‘twinkling’ and special effects •Developments in both kinetic and solar micro energy creation will no doubt dovetail into the trend for apparel and potentially interior furnishings with LED and OLED technology and other lighting and effects technologies - example Hussain Chalayan’s ‘Airborne’ dress which has Swarovski crystals and 15,000 flickering LED lights © Societas Ltd 2009 All Rights Reserved
  • 34. EMERGING PRINCIPLE: THE LIGHT FANTASTIC Philips - Living Colour LED Lighting •16 Million colour options at the flick of a switch •Intuitive remote control uses radio-waves not infrared •Based on 3 hrs use a day lasts up to 5 yrs
  • 35. BUILDINGS TOMORROW’S SUSTAINABLE WORLD… THE CHALLENGES: MIS-INFORMATION - Not only are the public ill-informed, but so too are the media - who frequently print misleading information both about environmental issues and the viability of ‘green’ branded goods and buildings FUNDING - Funding still in short supply. Bottle-necks created by lack of access to viable information / lack of knowledge sharing platforms / ignorance of the scale and urgency of the environmental challenges we face / economic downturn / conservative approach to ‘investing’ and bankers still chasing a fast buck, over investment into credible long-term goals LACK OF AWARENESS - Public still largely unaware of the the dangers of climate change and ignorant to the scale and rate of species extinction and the fact 1/3 of all bio-diversity on Earth has been destroyed since 1970, with an estimated 50,000 species becoming extinct annually in the world’s rain forests and an estimated 14-70 animal species lost around the world every day NARROW-MINDEDNESS - Too many designers and architects falling back on old methodology and approaches that are no longer able to create viable sustainable solutions © Societas Ltd 2009 All Rights Reserved
  • 36. BUILDINGS TOMORROW’S SUSTAINABLE WORLD… ON THE FOLLOWING PAGES ARE A SELECTION OF HIGHLY PUBLICISED ‘SUSTAINABLE’ DESIGN CONCEPTS… CAN YOU SPOT THE FLAWS IN THESE DESIGNS THAT THE WORLD’S PRESS & MEDIA FAILED TO? The flaws in the following concepts may be technical or conceptual - from a misunderstanding of climate science and/or renewable energy technology to serious structural errors that could lead to significant loss of human and/or animal life © Societas Ltd 2009 All Rights Reserved
  • 37. THE CHALLENGES OF BUILDINGS TOMORROW’S SUSTAINABLE WORLD CAN YOU SPOT THE DELIBERATE MISTAKES? Surfers & Seafarers may have a head start when trying to spot the flaws Belgian architect Vincent Callebaut’s Floating Cities
  • 38. THE CHALLENGES OF BUILDINGS TOMORROW’S SUSTAINABLE WORLD CAN YOU SPOT THE DELIBERATE MISTAKE? Those who own solar panels have an advantage spotting the flaw Lillies, by Peter Richardson
  • 39. THE CHALLENGES OF BUILDINGS TOMORROW’S SUSTAINABLE WORLD CAN YOU SPOT THE DELIBERATE MISTAKE? A clue… this concept was submitted to a leading international sustainable design competition stating the concept could ‘off-set carbon emissions’ from vehicles Garden Spots, by Stefanie Werner
  • 40. THE CHALLENGES OF BUILDINGS TOMORROW’S SUSTAINABLE WORLD CAN YOU SPOT THE DELIBERATE MISTAKE? Were you paying attention when I presented ‘Form Following Function’ and ‘Nature Dictating Design’… what’s wrong with the ‘form’ of this car? Scott Abel of Definable Design, an intern graphic designer at Pentagram in San Francisco
  • 41. BUILDING TOMORROW’S SUSTAINABLE WORLD FURTHER READING… Trends Review in Sustained Issue 8 - the Innovation issue - http://issuu.com/sustained/docs/issue_008/18 Renewable Energies Review in Sustained Issue 9 - the Low Carbon issue - http://issuu.com/sustained/docs/009 Read the extended Renewable Energy review at http://www.societas.ltd.uk/futureofenergy.html See the Sustainable Transport review in Sustained Issue 10 - the Alarm issue - coming out in July. WWF’s Reports - Deeper Luxury - http://www.wwf.org.uk/deeperluxury Let Them East Cake Report - http://www.wwf.org.uk/what_we_do/working_with_business/?uNewsID=537 Signposts & Weathercocks Report - http://www.wwf.org.uk/research_centre/research_centre_results.cfm?uNewsID=2224 Treehugger - http://www.treehugger.com and Inhabitat - http://www.inhabitat.com
  • 42. TOMORROW’S SUSTAINABLE WORLD… Melissa Sterry | Societás O: +44 (0) 870 910 4904 W: http://societas.ltd.uk