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Towards a classification  framework for social machines
Towards a classification  framework for social machines
Towards a classification  framework for social machines
Towards a classification  framework for social machines
Towards a classification  framework for social machines
Towards a classification  framework for social machines
Towards a classification  framework for social machines
Towards a classification  framework for social machines
Towards a classification  framework for social machines
Towards a classification  framework for social machines
Towards a classification  framework for social machines
Towards a classification  framework for social machines
Towards a classification  framework for social machines
Towards a classification  framework for social machines
Towards a classification  framework for social machines
Towards a classification  framework for social machines
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Towards a classification framework for social machines

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  • 1. Towards a classificationframework for social machinesSubmission at SOCM2013@WWW2013Elena Simperl26 April 2013
  • 2. Motivation and objectives• Future ICT systems as sophisticated assemblies of data-intensive, complex automation anddeep community involvement• Defining social machines and their characteristic properties as necessary step towards aprincipled understanding of the science and engineering of such systems• Objectives of this work– Identify and define the constructs to describe, study, and compare social machines– Achieve a shared understanding of basic notions and terminology through involvementfrom the broader community• Useful tool for both researchers in social and computer sciences and for developers andoperators of existing and future social machines2
  • 3. General considerations• Machine: ‘(1) an assemblage ofparts that transmit forces,motion, and energy one toanother in a predeterminedmanner; (2) an instrument (asa lever) designed to transmit ormodify the application of power,force, or motion’ [Merriam-Webster]• In relation to living beings: ‘onethat resembles a machine (as inbeing methodical, tireless, orconsistently productive)’[Merriam-Webster]• Social machine1. co-existence of and interactionamong algorithmic and socialcomponents;2. problem/task specification changesas the system evolves;3. operation of the system is governedby a different set of rules;4. different performance models andapproaches to measure them;3[Courtesy of Dave de Roure]
  • 4. The polyarchical relationship of social machines• Platforms/technologies vs social machines created for specificpurposes. E.g., MediaWiki vs Wikipedia• Broader vs narrower-scoped social machines. E.g., Twitter vs Obama’12• Ecosystem of social machines. E.g., results from GalaxyZoo taken up inWikipedia articles4
  • 5. Social machines and related areas• Computer science:CSCW, social computing,human computation• Organizationalmanagement/socialsciences: wisdom of thecrowds, collectiveintelligence, openinnovation,crowdsourcing5
  • 6. Social machines and related areas (2)• Who defines the task/purpose of the system– The system designer vs community• What kind of tasks do humans undertake– Creative vs computationally expensive• Who is supporting whom– Humans supporting algorithmic processes or machinessupporting human tasks6
  • 7. Methodology• Repertory grid elicitation to derive an initial set of elements(instances of social machines) and constructs (characteristicsof social machines)  10 grids, 56 elements, 117 constructs• Consolidation and clustering of constructs  31 constructs, fiveclusters– General description– Purpose and tasks– Participants and roles– Motivation and incentives– Technology7
  • 8. Purpose and forms of contribution• Contributions towards public vs private good• Implicit vs explicit contributions• Degree to which contributors decide what they can work on• Degree to which contributors can change thenature/purpose/development of the social machine• How is the final result created/aggregation8
  • 9. Participation and interaction• Who can contribute and what: roles, requester/worker,game models, skills and learning curve• Workflow management: task/resource assignment(scarcity, requester-contributions cardinality),parallelization, synchronization, aggregation– Machine replacing/assisting humans vs humansreplacing machines• Dynamics of participation model9
  • 10. Quality and performance• Which contributions are validated• Is there a ground truth and where does it come from: no one,community, dedicated group, machine owner• How is quality assessment performed: manually,agreement/voting between participants, computed automatically• Are criteria and quality control methods explicit/transparent• Can contributors change the criteria or earn the right to performevaluations10
  • 11. Motivation and incentives• Altruism• Reciprocity• Community• Reputation• Autonomy• Entertainment/Fun• Intellectual challenge• Learning• Competition• Payment/Rewards• Depend on– Nature of the goodproduced– Goal– Nature of thecontributions– Existing social structure11
  • 12. Technology and engineering• Requirements specification and evolution• Security, trust• Decentralization• Data ownership and access• Profile building• Social networks• Analytics on top of social network and actual data12[Courtesy of Dave Robertson]
  • 13. Next steps• Consolidate and use the classification• Evaluation– Task-independent using criteria from knowledgeengineering (completeness, correctness, readability,redundancy etc)– Task-dependent: Can the framework be used to describeexisting social machines?13
  • 14. Theory and practiceof social machinesMay 13, 201314
  • 15. Constructs: purpose of the system and contributions• Purpose of the system, types of contributions, degree towhich these change15
  • 16. Constructs: people, roles, motivation• Types of audience, autonomy and anonymity, roles and rolehierarchies• Intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation, rewards16

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