1. SOCIAMThe Theory and Practice of Social Machines Nigel Shadbolt
2. Investigator TeamPrincipal Investigator 5 years 2012-17 Nigel Shadbolt EPSRC funding£6.15MCo-Investigators EP/J017728/1 Wendy Hall Tim Berners-Lee mc schraefel Luc Moreau David De Roure David Robertson Peter Buneman
3. The order of social machinesReal life is and must be full of all kinds of socialconstraint – the very processes from whichsociety arises. Computers can help if we usethem to create abstract social machines on theWeb: processes in which the people do thecreative work and the machine does theadministration… The stage is set for anevolutionary growth of new social engines. Berners-Lee, Weaving the Web, 1999
4. An Example Social Machine• The Kenyan election on the 27th December 2007…• wave of riots, killings and turmoil…• African blogger Erik Hersman read a post by another blogger Ory Okolloh…• Resulted in Ushahidi…• “Nobody Knows Everything, but Everyone Knows Something.”• local observers to submit reports using the Web or SMS messages from mobile phones
5. Variants of the Ushahidi Social Machine Port au Prince HaitiWashington Snowmageddon Japan Fukashima Middle East Gaza
6. Characteristics of this social machine?(i) problems solved by the scale of human participation on the Web(ii) timely mobilisation and of people, technology and information resources(iii) incentive to participate with which increases as more partipate(iv) access to or else the ability to generate large amounts of relevant data(v) confidence in the quality of the data(vi) trust in the agents and process(vii) intuitive interfaces and user-centred(viii) works cross platform(ix) efficient, effective and equitable(x) exploits the power of open - Open Source, Open Standards, Open Data, Open Licences
7. Social Machines the New Frontier
8. Social Machines in Context Big Data SocialMore machines Big Compute Machines Conventional Social Computation Networking More people
9. Another perspective on Social Machines• People supply or refine data• People are elementary problem solvers• People generate/test partial solutions
10. Another perspective on Social Machines• People supply or refine data• People are elementary problem solvers• People generate/test partial solutions
11. Another perspective on Social Machines• People supply or refine data• People are elementary problem solvers• People generate/test partial solutions
12. Social Machines – Embarrassingly Parallel• Human Flesh Search – Accessibilitly – Popularisation – Centreless – Timeliness – Convergence
13. Social Machines – Embarrassingly Parallel• DARPA Balloon challenge• Social machines support• timely communication,• wide-area team-building,• urgent mobilization• required to solve broad- scope, time-critical problems
14. Social Machines can be Dark ShadowCrew (SC), Carderplanet (CP), Cardersmarket (CM) and Darkmarket (DM) carders have traded security for efficiency Carderplanet most fragmented network out of the four networks studied… one explanation for distinctive fragmentation is due the diversity of members which includes Russian speakers, English speakers as well as Chinese, Japanese and Koreans.
15. Some early social machines
16. Social Machines in the Age of Big Data
17. The dimensions of Social Machines – Social Machines vary depending on• Number of people • Empowering of• Number of machines individuals, groups or• Scale of data crowds• Varieties of data • Time criticality• Type of machine problem • Extent of wide area solving communication• Type of human problem • Need for urgent solving mobilization • Specification of goal state
18. Social Machines are NOT Turing Machines• they do contain conventional algorithmic components• but much else is different• a social machine will start with an incomplete specification that grows and evolves to cover more of the problem via interaction• a social machine achieves participation through local incentives which become reinforced as the…• incentive for an individual to supply data to the algorithm increases as more individuals participate• a social machine has a notion of completeness that is a social rather than mathematical issue• a social machine will not usually have a notion of the correct output or termination… rather it runs continuously
19. The SOCIAM Project Structure
20. What will SOCIAM do Theme 1 Social Computation• Understand how to design social computations• so that people can deal with the complexity of the problem solving;• building scaleable algorithms to pull data from individuals or the Web more generally;• generating new information of higher utility from individuals based on social interaction;• and returning information to individuals to reinforce their participation in the algorithm.
21. What will SOCIAM doTheme 2 Curated Data and Social Computation • Understand how to design data and databases in support of social computations • the information and data needed to drive social machines and collaborative problem solving will exists in many different place and forms on the Web; • some of it – perhaps most – will be user generated; Eric Fisher CC BY 2.0 • this material will need to be given links and made capable of discovery and integration; Kingsley Idehen CC BY 2.0 • other data will exist in databases and spread sheets; • The challenge is to surface and link all of this information and understand its relevance in the context of the social computations of the social machine. Mike Bergman CC BY 2.0
22. What will SOCIAM do Theme 3 Privacy, Accountability and Trust• Understand how to build Social Machines that respect privacy, are trusted and accountable• ensure that appropriate levels of privacy are available with data having different privacy policies associated with it• how to establish and associate trust or at least accountability in the data and in the social computation• how and why trust in data, processes or participants is established or breaks down in the Web
23. What will SOCIAM do Theme 4 Interaction• Understand how to build Social Machines that support effective interaction• effective interaction requires we understand the contexts of use;• how the components of the social computation determine the shape of the interaction;• provide tools to support rich sense making of the data presented in a social computation;• principles on which to design the interfaces to access, represent, and manipulate data, processes and participants as they are introduced
24. What will SOCIAM do Theme 5 Social Machine Implementations• Understand how to build Social Machines for Health Care, Transport and Policing• the work will be driven by the availability of open data for these sectors;• UK is in a unique position to explore the construction of social machines that mix open and private, national and individual data sets;• These areas have the potential of substantial contributions by individuals and social groups for both content and problem solving;• testbeds that will ensure heterogeneous and distributed data can be elicited, integrated and analysed; groups to organize and determine additional data collection, analysis or coordinated action in the physical world via algorithmic social computations; via interaction, to visualize and explore the data, to make sense of it; alongside mechanisms of trust and accountability for the various data, judgments, processes and participant
25. What will SOCIAM do Theme 6 Web Observatory• Understand Social Machines through an observatory that observes, monitors and classifies social machines - both those of the project and more widely on the Web - as they evolve;• it will also act as an early warning facility for new disruptive social machines elsewhere on the Web;• to understand how Social Machines reach tipping points, longitudinal observational data will reveal how they grow once launched;• whether they coalesce into larger machines or fragment into micro machines that still have utility;• what signals need to be observed, what is a fair and faithful sample of Web behaviour;• this is likely to call attention to appropriate governance, ethical and legal issues.
26. A Broader View of SOCIAM Social computation Engagement with Algorithms harnessing social social capacity, composed by social computations means. Real-time Real-time People inference from assimilation of Using personal devices; data, from local data, from socialinteracting with sensors. to social to local Linked data Curation of Curating local data with social use in personal data mind; connecting distributed data .
27. A vision for SOCIAM• How can we coordinate 10 million people to stop crime?• Or millions of people supporting themselves and others in the delivery of efficient transportation?• Or any scale of people supporting themselves and others in the delivery of well being?• If we can put a man on the moon with 100,000 what can we do with 100,000,000?• Social machines to delight and empower, absorb and empower…