What is Terrorism? Terrorism is using violence against innocent civilians to get what you want * Many terrorist groups have: * political , religious or environmental beliefs which they try to force on society * Unlike guerilla armies, terrorists do not expect victory by just military success. * They aim to frighten the public into changing the way society works .
Facts About Terrorism It is difficult to make statistics about terrorism, but some facts are clearer than others…..
Around the world about 50% of terrorist actions are bombings, 20% are shootings and 30% are kidnappings, hostage takings or hijackings
Around 20% of terrorist actions result in someone being killed…...
The number of people killed by terrorist has risen dramatically over the last 20 years.
Many terrorists are not fighting for politics or religion but for the earth itself .
Sometimes, these people are known as “eco warriors”.
Many of these these people are animal rights activists , fighting for (in their eyes) a better life for animals
Even these eco warriors can resort to violence and murder to get their way.
Paying for Terrorism * Terrorists need money to buy weapons and to keep operations ‘secret’. * ‘Missions’ cost lots of money (fake passports, safe houses etc.) Some methods used to raise money are : Fake charities Donations and gifts (eg, Osama Bin Laden) Drug smuggling and prostitution DVD pirating Robberies, kidnappings and ransoms
Limits to Terror It is easier to imagine terrorists having access to very destructive weapons - but this is easier said than done...
Using nuclear weapons could offend the rest of the world so deeply that terrorist groups could lose all their supporters
Terrorist groups prefer to use conventional (ordinary)weapons rather than Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD).
High-tech weapons such as nuclear, biological and chemical weapons require scientific research that few terrorist groups can afford.
Guns are surprisingly easy to come by as is information on how to make bombs.
Only terrorist group so far to use a serious chemical weapon
Attempted to ‘nerve gas’ (Sarin) thousands on Tokyo underground
Only 12 people died but 5,500 hospitalised
Cult immediately lost supporters and leader was arrested.
Examples of Terrorism (2) September 11th, 2001 The Twin Towers, New York
4 jets hijacked by Al Qaida terrorists
2 flown into twin tower blocks at World Trade Centre, New York
Massive explosions and loss of life (over 3,000) as buildings burn and collapse , trapping thousands.
Another jet hits Pentagon - US military headquarters, and 4th jet crashed short of target (White House?) as passengers storm cockpit - all killed
Although directed at US, citizens of over 60 countries perished in the attack.
Results of September 11th (1) The Invasion of Afghanistan
September 11th led to a new era of terrorism, especially in the increased numbers dying from terrorist attacks.
The attacks led to an Alliance between the US and Britain (among others) and a pledge to “fight global terrorism on all fronts”.
Led to a US/UK invasion of Afghanistan , the defeat of the Taliban (aggressive, extremist Islamic government which the Alliance believed was backing Al Qaida) and the destruction of Al Qaida bases.
Led to the hunt for Osama Bin Laden (unofficial leader of Al Qaida)
As yet, Bin Laden remains uncaptured……………...
Results of September 11th (2) The Invasion of Iraq
Iraq accused of being a ‘rogue state’ by the USA.
US, UK and other countries worried that Iraq secretly making Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)
Iraq refuses to comply with United Nations weapons inspectors sent in to find WMD
US and UK invade Iraq in March 2003 - defeat Iraq within 3 weeks
Saddam Hussein flees along with others of regime - later caught hiding in bunker in December 2003
Saddam to be tried for war crimes and crimes against humanity . Iraq becomes target for guerilla groups fighting against US/UK occupation.
Countering Terrorism Terrorism is difficult to fight against. Terrorists are usually well-armed and are often supported by the community they believe they are fighting for….. However, some methods used are: * Anti-terrorist ‘hit’ squads to find and kill terrorists * Information-gathering intelligence to head off attacks and arrest terrorists * Increasing security on possible targets like airports (but often terrorists may switch to easier targets) * Last resort is to ‘punish’ community supporting terrorists if cannot find them
The Future? Many people in poor countries want to resist Western influence - one way is terrorism Some governments are preparing for terrorist attacks on computer networks Many major countries of the world are sharing intelligence and monitoring flows of people and money around the world.